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of or relating to scope

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operators and satellites in the terminology of FG) in the NP are seen as being organized into a number layers which correspond to semantic domains and are in a scopal relation.
He demonstrates that there is a strong preference for word order patterns in the NP to be iconic to the scopal relations proposed in his model of the underlying NP structure, and explains various types of (apparent) counterexamples.
If demonstrative, numeral and adjective are ordered according to the scopal relations as captured in the layered organization of the underlying structure (Figure 1), only eight combinations (of the 24 that are logically possible) are predicted to occur (Rijkhoff 2004).
In the previous section we discussed the relative order of three descriptive modifiers (demonstrative, numeral and adjective) in a simple, integral NP and found that there is a strong preference to adhere to patterns that reflect scopal relations in the underlying structure of the NP (see Figure 4).
The close relationship between the syntactic position of khong and its scopal interpretation is brought out clearly by the interpretation of indefinite subjects in (18): where immediately preceded by khong, the subject argument ai is necessarily interpreted as a polarity item (18a), otherwise it is treated as a wh-element (18b): cf.
In Section 5 below, this notion of scope is shown to account for the distribution and interpretation of several independent multifunctional elements in Vietnamese: the analyses presented there further reinforce the idea that the relevant scopal operator is projected in this low position--below TP, and the subject position in [Spec, TP]--rather than in the highest functional projection (CP).
If these proposals are correct, then the appearance of multifunctional elements apparently in subject position does not constitute a real challenge to the main idea behind (11), namely, that the interpretation of preverbal multifunctional elements--including co, ai gi, dau, and khong (chang)--is determined exclusively by their scopal relationship to the syntactic head Asr, and by the values of the feature set of Asr.
The Vietnamese data presented in this paper have been shown to provide relevant empirical support for two theoretical claims articulated in Klein (1998, 2006): first, that finiteness should be understood as a composite of tense and assertion, and that assertion may be syntactically realized independently of tense marking; second, that the assertion operator so realized has only partial scope over elements of the clause, so that fronted elements may evade this scopal influence.
With respect to minimalist views on the architecture of grammar, the chief problem is the reference to overtness, which LF does not allow; and with respect to a government-binding formulation like (29), it is scopal information, which cannot be naturally encoded before LF.
Suppose instead that PIs are represented in syntax (and LF) as feature bundles that include a marker for dependency; suppose, that is, that the scopal dependency that characterizes PIs is visible in the syntax:
The conceptual objection is the same as for (29): "licensing" and c-command are terms that make sense at LF, where structural relations are read in scopal terms; to extend licensing configurational requirements to morphological structure simply amounts to restating the facts.
The scopal items analyzed are negation and additive, restrictive, and temporal items.
The learners studied have been independently shown (Klein and Perdue 1992, 1997) to progress from a nominal utterance organization, through an organization based on an uninflected verb (the "basic variety"), and on to utterances organized around a finite verb, and the placement and scopal properties of the items analyzed correspond closely to this development.
The recorded data were transcribed and computerized, allowing exhaustive counts of the scopal items used by the main informants.
Under this scopal relation between bu and the manner phrase, the unselective binder bu will bind the event variable e, turning the sentential subject ta bu pao `he not run' into a proposition, that is, with no free event or situation variable in it.