All food and human origin Salmonella were isolated on Hecktoen solid media after a double selective enrichment in Selenite F broth (SFB).
The MICs of Salmonella isolates were determined according to EUCAST guidelines for the micro dilution method (EUCAST, 2013).
An Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) was applied for determining relationships between isolated Salmonella strains according to their behavior towards the different antimicrobial tested drugs (MIC profile), which were grouped according to Pearson correlation coefficient similarities based on Ward's aggregation method.
Salmonella are naturally sensitive to antibiotics tested for Enterobacteriaceae, the distribution of strains of food and human origin according to MICs recorded with the range of selected antibiotics were presented in the context of sampling (Table 2 and 3).
Salmonella disease or intestinal carriage can occur in cattle with access to biosolids (Reilly et al.
Evaluation included examination of faecal shedding of salmonellae and Salmonella infection of predilection tissue sites (lower small intestine, upper large intestine, and draining lymph nodes) at slaughter.
All were individually ear-tagged with different colour codes for each of the 5 treatments (2 biosolids rates x 2 times of introduction, plus controls), and tested for Salmonella excretion in faeces (as described below).
At 6 months after biosolids application, these remaining sheep were again tested for faecal shedding of Salmonella spp.
Salmonella serotype Newport and Salmonella serotype Typhimurium are the two most commonly identified serotypes of Salmonella causing human disease in the state of Arkansas.
Recently, it has been demonstrated that pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is useful in identifying genetically identical nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates including Salmonella serotype Newport and Salmonella serotype Typhimurium specifically.
All isolates of Salmonella serotype Newport and Salmonella serotype Typhimurium submitted to the Arkansas Department of Health were gathered and underwent DNA fingerprinting by PFGE using previously described techniques.
During the study period, 191 isolates of Salmonella serotype Newport and Salmonella serotype Typhimurium were sent to the Arkansas Department of Health.
Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfa drugs, and fluoroquinolone have been established as standard first-line therapy for Salmonella infections.
Fosfomycin is often administered to babies and children and expected to be effective; however, fosfomycin-resistant Salmonella has been reported in Japan (18).
The emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella in European countries is attributed to the use of fluoroquinolones in livestock and the accompanying natural selection of the resistant strain.