Lipids were extracted twice with a mixture of chloroform: ethanol (2:1 by vol) containing 2 nmol of 2-ricinoleoyl-PC and 1 nmol of ricinoleic acid
used as internal calibrators, and the water phase was acidified to pH 3 before the second extraction step.
Indeed, because of the presence of a hydroxi group and an acid group in ricinoleic acid
, it was possible to obtain linear polyesters by its direct polyesterification.
Though the main use of castor oil is based on its high content of ricinoleic acid
, which distinguishes it from other seed oils, the identification of variants with low levels or free from this fatty acid, and increased levels of oleic acid could provide wider markets for this crop.
Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid
activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors.
Sulphonated castor oil is used for dyeing and preservation of leather, production of Ricinoleic acid
(polyamide resin) and in biodiesel studies (Anonymous, 2009; Ombrello, 2009).
It is primarily constituted of ricinoleic acid
(approximately 90%), which can then be transformed into sodium ricinoleate via alkaline hydrolysis .
(6) Castor oil is not used as a food source and it is chiefly composed of triglycerides of ricinoleic acid
, with minor contributions from oleic, linoleic, and others.
The major component of castor oil is triglyceride of ricinoleic acid
which is decomposed by lipases in the small intestine to glycerol and ricinoleic acid
The weight percentage of ricinoleic acid
in castor oil was calculated as follows (equation 4).
Castor seeds contains about 50-55% of castor oil which is composed of 81-96% of glycerides of ricinoleic acid
Ando A, Ogawa J, Kishino S, Shimizu S (2003) CLA production from ricinoleic acid
by lactic acid bacteria.
The pharmacologically active molecule in the oil is ricinoleic acid
, which is approximately 90% of the entire fatty acid chain composition.
Reactives used in the present work such as KOH, Sn[Cl.sub.2] *2[H.sub.2]O, and [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] were obtained from Mallinckrot, the acetic acid from Aldrich, the castoroil acid in a composition of 90% in ricinoleic acid
form Genquimicos Ltda, and chloroform, ethanol, sodium anhydrous sulfate, sodium methoxide, tert-butanol, hydrogen peroxide, ammonium hydroxide, and 1-fenilethanol from Merck.