A distinct retiform
pattern was also identified consisting of irregular networks of elongated and slit-like tubules with a "staghorn" appearance (Figure 3).
That said, it's important to suspect the condition in cocaine users who present with retiform
Kobal, "Sertoli-Leydig cell tum or with retiform
areas and overgrowth of rhabdomyosarcomatous elements: case report and literature review," Journal of Ovarian Research, vol.
On reaching the brain, this was converted to 'psychic pneuma' in the retiform
plexus or choroid plexus in the lateral ventricles.
The last patient had noninflammatory retiform
purpura as a result of occlusion.
Approximately 20% of SLCTs contain heterologous, most often intestinal or gastric-type mucinous epithelial, elements (Figure 12, D), and rare cases show a retiform
However, virilization is less common in retiform
Since 2009, there have been successive reports of systemic vasculitis in users of levamisole-contaminated cocaine, a condition characterized by retiform
purpura, neutropenia, intravascular thrombosis, and pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis in the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) and other autoantibodies (6-10).
One study6 observed it in 5 different morphologies: ductal, tubular, solid, retiform
and sex-cord like pattern.
(68, 69) Many cases have been reported of agranulocytosis with retiform
purpura among cocaine users.
The cutaneous involvement includes development of skin rash as purpuric papules, ecchymosis, and skin necrosis often having a "retiform
," "reticular," or "stellate" pattern leading to ulceration and secondary infection and associated with leukopenia and autoantibody production .
Herophilus apparently described 3 layers to the eyeball: an outer horny layer (comprising the cornea in front and the sclera further back), a second layer, smooth on the outside and rough inside, 'like grape skin' (iris in front, choroid behind) and a 'cobweb-like' inner layer (retina--likened to a casting net (retiform
), from which the word retina originated).
Inflammatory hemorrhage, including vasculitis, most typically presents as palpable, partially blanchable purpura that are either round or retiform
(branching, stellate) in morphology.
Young shares his detailed career experiences in the diagnosis of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, including sclerosing stromal tumor, luteinized thecomas of the type associated with sclerosing peritonitis, ovarian myxoma, signet ring stromal tumor, microcystic stromal tumor, adult and juvenile granulosa cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, retiform
tumors, and sex cord tumor with annular tubules.