Besides interalveolar pores, collateral ventilation can also occur via bronchiole-alveolar communications (Lambert's channels), interbronchiolar communications (Martin's channels), and even interlobular respiratory bronchioles
, depending on the alveolar location and emphysema severity .
Centriacinar emphysema affects respiratory bronchioles
, with relative sparing of the distal alveoli.
In primates, lymphatic vessels exist at the alveolar level adjacent to the respiratory bronchioles
In this paper, we report evidence that both carbonaceous and mineral dust are primarily distributed to the terminal and respiratory bronchioles
and that there is anatomical remodeling within these same sites.
Some, such as Ryu et al, (6) appear to accept cases with nothing more than smoker's macrophages (albeit this report does not provide pathologic details), but most authors have noted that the walls of the respiratory bronchioles
are fibrotic in RBILD and may also contain inflammatory cells, (1,4,5,7,8) and most have also included fibrosis and inflammation in the alveolar walls surrounding respiratory bronchioles
as part of the morphologic spectrum of this disease.
BO results in inflammation and fibrosis in the walls and contiguous tissues of respiratory bronchioles
with narrowing of their lumens (4).
As such, elastin fibres as a marker of necrosis of intra-alveolar septa, blood vessels and respiratory bronchioles
resulting from pulmonary infection or inflammation might allow the diagnosis of lung necrosis in the absence of CT scans of the chest or overt cavitation.
The pathology observed in Mexico City children and dogs is likely related to exposure to [O.sub.3] and PM, which are known to target respiratory bronchioles
(Camner et al.
As terminal bronchioles penetrate more deeply into the lungs, they divide into microscopic respiratory bronchioles
. These lead into alveolar sacs resembling bunches of grapes.
Alveolar Duct--The opening through which air passes between the respiratory bronchioles
and the alveoli.
They further divide into respiratory bronchioles
, ending in alveolar ducts.
 Previous studies from several laboratories have shown that this airway obstruction is associated with chronic inflammatory process in the membranous and respiratory bronchioles
. [9,10] It is believed that the airway constriction in COPD and decline in PFT are not reversible.
The Canals of Lambert are respiratory bronchiolar communications that allow for gas flow between respiratory bronchioles
. Many authors posit that these passageways, along with intersegmental respiratory bronchiolar pathways that exist primarily in the lower lobes, may be as important as the Pores of Kohn regarding the success of lung re-inflation therapy to aid in the treatment and resolution of atelectasis and pneumonia.
1985) to evaluate airway wall fibrosis and airway wall muscle in the membranous bronchioles (MBs) and respiratory bronchioles
Respiratory bronchiolitis (RB) can be identified by microscopic examination of the lungs of essentially all current cigarette smokers and many ex-smokers, (5) and it consists of collections of pigmented macrophages ("smoker's macrophages") in the lumens of respiratory bronchioles
and surrounding alveoli.