[A.sub.r] and [A.sub.h] are the displacement amplitudes of respiration and heartbeat.
Then, DALE is used to separate and extract respiration. After that, respiratory harmonics are attenuated by MTI excursive filter.
In order to separate and extract the nonstationary and quasi-periodic respiration from echo, a DALE is proposed based on the same theory of ALE, but with adaptive adjusting time delay and NLMS convergence algorithm.
This parameter is determined by bandwidths of respiration and heartbeat
where [P.sub.h] and [P.sub.r] are the periods of heartbeat and respiration. [Z.sub.n]/[F.sub.s] denotes the delay version in time.
McNamara, "Comparing the closed static versus the closed dynamic chamber flux methodology: implications for soil respiration studies," Plant and Soil, vol.
Nieuwenhuis, "Forest thinning and soil respiration in a Sitka spruce forest in Ireland," Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol.
Crummer, "Thawing permafrost increases old soil and autotrophic respiration in tundra: partitioning ecosystem respiration using [[delta].sup.13]C and [[DELTA].sup.14]C," Global Change Biology, vol.
Folster, "Carbon cycle dynamics and soil respiration of forest under natural degradation in the Gran Sabana," Interciencia, vol.
Using the START tool, a 15 year old male with a large head wound, including brain matter showing, with no respirations, no pulse and unconscious is tagged as:
Using the START tool, a middle aged woman with an impaled foot, small piece of shrapnel in the right eye, respirations <30/minute, present radial pulse, awake and alert is tagged as:
Soil respiration ([R.sub.s]) was measured via the soda-lime method (Tufekcioglu and Kucuk 2004).
Microbial respiration ([R.sub.SM] and [R.sub.FFM]) was determined by placing 30 g soil (samples adjusted to 50-55% water-holding capacity) and 10 g forest floor, respectively, into 500-mL beakers and incubating in the dark at 25[degrees]C within sealed incubation vessels containing 10mL of 1m NaOH.
Effects of thinning on soil and forest floor microbial respiration
Relationships between soil respiration and variables