One female rebutter was designated to respond in 10 of the 35 rebuttals, and, in 1972, Democrats selected 2 women to be part of the 11-member group that delivered the rebuttal.
I examine the impact of the following variables on changes in presidential approval levels: total number of rebutters, the proportion of senators, governors (House members are the excluded category), and women selected to rebut, rebutter ideology and rebutters' ideological distance from the incumbent president.
The estimates suggest the change in the president's approval grows by nearly half of a percentage point for each additional rebutter included in the out-party response team.
My measure of rebutter ideology is the absolute value of the average ideology of the group of rebutters.
TABLE 1 Descriptive Statistics: Mean Levels of Rebutter Characteristics, 1966-2006 Mean Std.
I investigate and compare the major parties' selection of rebutters with respect to their political backgrounds, institutional affiliation, and demographic and political characteristics.
Unfortunately, the rebutters only discuss the first question.
The rebutters appear to criticize the idea that there are primary uses and secondary uses that have separate economic profiles within the same railways but fail to realize that the current use of ATF simply ignores the economic characteristics of any part of the corridor.
The rebutters take issue with the term "assumed minimum value" and declare it is not true in practice or theory.
The rebutters state that there are no undisclosed hypothetical conditions within the ATF methodology.
In their comments, the rebutters describe comparison of local sales data to other local sales data with adjustments to the local sales data for size, location, topography, etc.