This distinction is important because while both of these activities represent cognitive rationales
, the outcomes of these activities may be very different.
With the exception of subject interaction and questions, the rationales
were scripted, word for word.
The fourth hypothesis predicts that some discount rationales
will elicit more positive consumer reactions than others.
The signs of the coefficients indicate that private sector organizations tend to utilize an organizational rationale
, while public sector organizations tend to utilize a social rationale
In conjunction with the so-called Graham factors, a party urging obviousness must show: (1) some teaching or suggestion of each and every claim limitations recited by the claims; (2) a rationale
for modification or combination; (3) a reasonable expectation of success; and (4) that secondary considerations do not overcome obviousness.
The paper discusses possible rationales
for foreign language education in this environment, assessing the value of instrumental skills rationales
(currently prevalent among learners, policymakers, and strategists) versus broader rationales
with a stronger values ethos.
Card and Krueger offered some complex theoretical rationales
, but most of their colleagues are unconvinced; the centrist view is probably that minimum wages "do," in fact, reduce employment, but that the effects are small and swamped by other forces.
Educational reforms are advocated based on rationales
that emerge from the research literature.
The following broad rationales
for linking service learning and school-to-work are identified: (1) both learning opportunities expose students to a wide variety of careers and illustrate how school-based learning relates to the skills and abilities required in the workplace; (2) both strategies provide opportunities for students to engage in multidisciplinary, project-based learning; and (3) because both strategies facilitate development of similar skills, their resources can be leveraged and combined to support a comprehensive initiative.