Dygalo, "Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 and Bcl-xL in the rat raphe nucleus
after acute and chronic forced swim stress," Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied Research, vol.
In a study on rodents, investigators from the National Institute on Drug Abuse used tracers to confirm that the reward pathways started with glutamate cells in the dorsal raphe nucleus
, which connect to dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area, which eventually lead to the nucleus accumbens, a brain structure important to reward, pleasure, and motivation.
GABAergic projection from the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra to the periaqueductal gray region and the dorsal raphe nucleus
. J Comp Neurol.
[38,46,47] Anatomic studies show that both the amygdala and the hippocampus receive serotonergic innervation from the dorsal raphe nucleus
[48,49] and have several subtypes of serotonin receptors, including the 5-HT1A receptor.
Serotonergic neurons of dorsal raphe nucleus
on the effect of a xanthone from Kielmeyera coriacea stems in behavioral tests.
Serotoninergic cell bodies located in the raphe nucleus
in the brainstem, and noradrenergic neurones located in the locus coeruleus (also in the brainstem) send projections to various parts of the brain involved in the control of mood, appetite, sexual activity, attention and concentration.
Takeshige suggests that electromagnetic resonance may also cause a decrease in serotonin in the pineal and brainstem raphe nucleus
, which controls involuntary muscle tone.
Lower brainstem catecholamine afferents to the rat dorsal raphe nucleus
. J Comp Neurol 1996;364:402-413.
Anatomically, much research has focused on the locus ceruleus, the hypothalamus, and the dorsal raphe nucleus
. The hypothalamus plays a role in the onset and maintenance of sleep while the locus ceruleus and the dorsal raphe nucleus
play a role in the onset and maintenance of REM sleep.
The nerve cells originate deep in the base of your brain in a region called the raphe nucleus
. They sprout long, stringy fibers called axons that connect to more distant parts of the brain.