represent an important digitization tool, since they are able to achieve near-constant quality of reconstructed signal for a wide range of input signal's variances, when quantizing non-stationary signals.
Each measurement value [mathematical expression not reproducible] (1 [less than or equal to] i [less than or equal to] n) is mapped to a temporary bit via a quantizer
[Q.sup.u] (*) such that measurements below the lower threshold [mathematical expression not reproducible] are encoded as bit 0, measurements above the upper threshold [mathematical expression not reproducible] are encoded as bit 1, while measurements within the interval [[mathematical expression not reproducible]] are discarded.
We propose a three-level scalar quantizer
designed for variable length code-words (VLC) employing Huffman coding, since it is highly efficient when operating with low number of quantization levels .
By adopting the logarithmic quantizer
, the quantization error of the sampled position data can be illustrated as the uncertainty according to the sector bound property.
input is denoted as w=s+d, where s is measured value and d is added noise.
Vaishampayan and J.-C Batllo, "Asymptotic analysis of multiple description quantizers
," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory,vol.
AVERAGE SIGNAL TO QUANTIZATION NOISE RATIO SQNR [dB] CALCULATED DEPENDING ON THE NUMBER OF QUANTIZERS
Ng AND PARAMETER [mu].
The first variation, denoted as BTC3U, denotes the modified BTC algorithm with the application of three uniform quantizers
. This is an initial system which applies multilevel uniform quantization, more similar to the original BTC algorithm, which utilizes three uniform quantizers
Algorithm 2 constructs L quantizers
by dispersing the second level K codebooks incrementally into L groups and each group (can be seen as a new codebook, i.e., quantizer
) is with K code words.
[Q.sub.1] and [Q.sub.2] are designed using [mu]-logarithmic compression law, whose compression function is defined with -
Due to parameters changes of the speech signal in the time, it is recommended the use of adaptive quantizers
that are during quantization adapted to local statistical characteristics of the source [l]-.
The design of quantizers
for speech signal transmission mostly assumes that input signal can be well described with Gaussian or Laplacian probability density functions (PDF).
We evaluate the performance of 3D RoIAlign layer by drawing error curves for three FCNs under various quantizers
including RoIPool, RoIWarp and our 3D RoIAlign, the evaluation results are shown in Fig.
The restricted three-level quantization designed for variable-length codewords has been considered in  as a part of switched quantization scheme developed for Laplacian sources, where switching among the available quantizers
is done according to the lower distortion.
Nevertheless, no article has considered a system with a dynamic output feedback controller and two quantizers
based on event-triggered scheme.