where [Q.sup.1.sub.n](f) is the

quadrature applied on the interval [a,b].

Pradhan (1996)[1] have constructed a

quadrature rule for approximate evaluation of (1) from two

quadrature rules of different type but of equal precision.

It helps in studying the real and the imaginary (in-phase and

quadrature) components of the complex signal.

Heidari, Solving nonlinear integral equations in the Urysohn form by Newton Kantorovich

quadrature method, in Computers and Mathematics with Applications 60 (2010) 2058-2065

In Chapter 5 of the book [12] published in 1983, Draux introduced a generalization of the Gauss

quadrature formula for approximating the real-valued linear functionals.The associated results in [45, 49], obtained independently of those from [12], can be considered as straightforward generalizations to the complex case.

Next, a model of the

quadrature booster is formulated.

For example, for p = 3 and the QNU

quadrature scheme, the IGA results are far superior to the Abaqus and Nastran shell elements even in the context of this simple linear elastic problem.

Quadrature oscillators find diverse application in measurement systems [30-33] and in communication circuits,

quadrature mixers, SSB-modulator, vector generator, and data conversion.

One of the most important features of the SEM is that the computation of the Lagrange polynomials that are used for the approximation of solution is based on the same GLL-nodes that are necessary to calculate integrals over the region [[OMEGA].sup.e] using the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre

quadrature formula.

The angular variable is usually discretized by replacing angular integrals with

quadrature sums.

To solve this problem, Shovan and Swati [19] proposed cubature

quadrature Kalman filter (CQKF): the algorithm adopts the same method for solving the spherical integral as CKF, but, for radial integral, arbitrary order Gaussian-Laguerre

quadrature formula is used to achieve a higher radial integral accuracy, so as to improve the filtering accuracy further.

Inside the motor housing, the linear optical

quadrature encoder is directly connected to the shaft for the greatest possible accuracy.

In addition, compared to Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) signals, little work have been done on the bandwidth efficient

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation signals in multicell DAS [17].

In this method, first the receiving AM radio signal containing HV noise is

quadrature demodulated.

Quadrature sinusoid oscillators are widely used in orthogonal signal mixers, in PLLs and SSB modulators; some such oscillators based on various active devices, for example, voltage operational amplifier-VOA [9], CFOA [10,11], CDBA [12,13], CDTA [14], DDCC [15], CCCCTA [16], OTA [17], and DVCCTA [18,19], are reported.