Mapping of segmented structures: Once the image registration process was completed, nine already segmented mid-brain structures of reference image ie left ventricle, right ventricle, 3rd ventricle, left putamen
, right putamen
, left caudate nucleus, right caudate nucleus, anterior commissure and posterior commissure were mapped (Ali and Khan, 2011) from the reference image to target images by applying the final transformation achieved, as a result of registration process.
Both pathways start with the stimulus from cortex to the neostriatum (caudate and putamen
- Str) and unite again at the output nucleus of the basal ganglia, GPi/SNr.
The focus of this work is to develop a system, which can assist doctors and bio-informatics practitioners in the diagnosis of PD in the early stages itself by monitoring the changes in the putamen
and caudate regions of the brain and by measuring the eye-hand coordination level.
Several studies have supported this idea: deficiency in dopaminergic systems of the putamen
and substantia nigra in a postmortem study (4), reversibility of clinical and electrophysiological findings after dopaminergic treatments (5), and functional imaging studies (6) suggest the involvement of the dopaminergic pathways at the level of the brainstem and basal ganglia.
However, in 2008 scientists analysed MRI images of the human brain and discovered the same part - the putamen
- lights up whenever we feel love or hate.
One important point is that in the majority of the cases the insular arteries primarily supply the insular cortex, extreme capsule, and, occasionally, the claustrum and external capsule, but not the putamen
, globus pallidus, or internal capsule, which are vascularized by the lateral lenticulostriate arteries (LLAs), although some thicker branches from M2 may anastomose with the LAAs.
Amphetamine consistently increased spine density and dendritic branches in the NAc core, NAc shell, mPFC, caudate, and putamen
, but decreased spine density in oPFC and Oc1.
USPRwire, Fri Feb 12 2016] Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare, inherited, genetic disorder that causes progressive degeneration of the nerve cells of the brain especially the caudate, the putamen
, and the cerebral cortex.
Fifteen months after onset, a 24-h electroencephalography (EEG) was unremarkable, and brain MRI showed atrophy in the right insular cortex, caudate, putamen
, and cerebral crus with high signals in the corona radiata on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images.
A cubic volume of interest (VOI), 4 x 4 x 5 cm, was centered on the left dorsal putamen
at the level of the lentiform nucleus.
These astrocytes also express metallothionein with zinc, which is thought to be the cause of asymmetric hypointensity of the posterior putamen
Clinical scores were correlated with the connection between the precentral gyrus and putamen
in the left hemisphere (r = 0.
atrophy on MRI of putamen
, middle cerebellar peduncle, pons, or cerebellum
Figure-B and C show central putamen
haemorrhage which is hyperdense on CT and hyperintense on T1WI (hypointense on T2WI) alongwith peripheral oedema.
Los hallazgos imaginologicos incluyen atrofia frontotemporal y, en la resonancia magnetica cerebral, la imagen denominada en "alas de murcielago (4,7), atenuacion del nucleo caudado, el putamen
y la sustancia blanca, dilatacion ventricular, atrofia cerebral e hidrocefalia comunicante.