High concentrations of formic acid in the putamen
lead to its necrosis due to increased propensity of the striatal neurons to accumulate the toxic metabolites of methanol12 (fig-1 and II).
[10, 11] The CT brain shows unilateral hyperdensity of the putamen
and/or caudate nucleus.
APOE [epsilon]4 status did not appear to modify associations between school TRAP exposures and putamen
or globus pallidus volumes, which were consistent with the null for both carriers and noncarriers (Table 3).
There is a predilection for involvement of the putamen
. Rarely, bilateral involvement may be observed.
MRI revealed increased signal changes on T2 and fluid attenuated inversion recovery-weighted sequences and diffusion restriction on diffusion-weighted sequences in the bilateral caudate and putamen
. There was no signal change in apparent diffusion coefficient mapping (Figure 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D).
Bob is apparently an HSAMer, as people with highly superior autobiographical memory are known, due to "an enlarged caudate nucleus and putamen
", whatever those may be.
Neuroimaging findings generally show subcortical leukoencephalopathy, cerebellar atrophy and changes in dentate nuclei and putamen
The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical gray nuclei, which include the dorsal striatum [i.e., caudate nucleus (CAU) and putamen
(PUT)], ventral striatum [including the nucleus accumbens (NA)], globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra (SN), and subthalamic nucleus (STN), and have complex anatomical and functional projections in the brain (1,2).
The anatomical involvement of subcortical structures, mainly caudate and putamen
, characteristic of this disease, could explain the mechanism of parkinsonism .
However, the left cerebellum posterior lobe, left frontal superior orbital lobe (gyrus rectus), right middle occipital gyrus (MOG), and bilateral putamen
showed significantly decreased volumes.
Prior research reported a reduction in limbic connectivity and the insula, putamen
, anterior thalamus, and middle cingulate cortex in svPPA and bvFTD with respect to controls .
The study also showed that the cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the putamen
- a round structure located at the base of the forebrain that is linked to learning - was much more in marijuana users than non-users.
'Through a large-scale, international data sharing and data-analysis-sharing effort, we were able to actually successfully identify genetic effects on the hippocampus, putamen
and other brain regions that no one had ever successfully identified genetics effects on before,' said Jessica Turner, associate professor of psychology and neuroscience at Georgia State University.
Using this scheme, the aim was to segment nine mid-brain structures including left ventricle, right ventricle, third ventricle, anterior commissure, posterior commissure, left putamen
, right putamen
, left caudate nucleus and right caudate nucleus.