Puddled experimental plots (P-BMP and P-SRI) were dry-ploughed followed by deep harrowing (twice), levelling and proper puddling before rice transplantation.
In the 0-15 cm soil layer, significantly higher bulk density was found under puddled conditions than unpuddled conditions.
Again the highest resistances were recorded in puddled treatments (1.
At low soil moisture potentials (at and close to saturation), soil water content was clearly higher in puddled soils than unpuddlcd soils.
The puddled soil is soft and assists in transplanting of rice seedlings.
Soil puddling is generally regarded as beneficial for rice production; however, it is likely to result in adverse soil conditions for dry season crops when the puddled layer dries out after the rice season (Pasaribu and McIntosh 1985).
This paper describes a method to quantify puddling intensity and reports on the effect of puddling on soil dispersion and hydraulic conductivity/percolation rates as well as changes in soil physical properties during drying of the puddled layer.
22 m depth, 32% immediately below the puddled layer (0.
However, it is possible that increased puddling may be needed on permeable, well-structured, or coarse-textured soils, such as the loam in this case, to maintain soft soil suitable for easy root proliferation within the puddled layer.
The higher yield on highly puddled soil was probably due to reduced growth earlier in the season that left relatively more water available during the generative phase.
95) that an apron curtain falls just below the window sill, while a puddled
style pools slightly on the floor.