Yamamoto, "Condylar and temporomandibular joint disc positions after mandibular osteotomy for prognathism
," Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol.
Hwang, "Miniscre-wassisted nonsurgical palatal expansion before orthognathic surgery for a patient with severe mandibular prognathism
," American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol.
123500) characterized by craniosynostosis, leading to hypertelorism, prognathism
of mandible, hypoplastic maxillary, and short upper lip .
Examination was remarkable for facial dysmorphisms (prominent eyebrows, low set ears, midfacial retrusion, and mild prognathism
) (see Figure 1) and a genital exam that showed a micropenis.
Finger size was proportional and no prognathism
, acromegaly, or Cushingoid features were appreciated.
Clinical manifestations of late congenital syphilis include perioral fissures (rhagades), saddle nose deformity, frontal bossing, Hutchinson's triad (peg-shaped, notched, widely spaced permanent upper central incisors; interstitial keratitis; and the eighth cranial nerve deafness), multicusped first molars (mulberry molars), mental retardation, perforation of the hard palate, prognathism
, painless effusion of knees (Clutton joints), thickening of sternoclavicular joint (Higoumenakis sign), scaphoid scapula, and anterior bowing of shins (saber shins) [5, 7, 9, 12].
Obwegeser, "The surgical correction of mandibular prognathism
and retrognathia with consideration of genioplasty: part I.
Skeletal Class III malocclusion can be manifested as maxillary retrognathism, mandibular prognathism
, or a combination of both.
We observed that subjects with prognathism
and retrognathism present adaptations in all functions performed by the oral motor system before orthognathic surgery.
Extraoral examination revealed a normal head morphology with mild maxillary hypoplasia with resultant relative mandibular prognathism
Along with clockwise or anti clockwise rotational change in the jaw position and sagittal position of point N, the ANB may be affected by vertical position of point N, the upward or downward rotation of the Sella-Nasion plane, the age of the patient, the relation of Sella-Nasion plane to the occlusal plane, the degree of prognathism
of jaws and the recording errors16.
Patients with CS have a typical face phenotype (microcephaly, wizened face, deep-set eyes, mandible prognathism
, hypoplastic teeth, and malformed ears) and develop dwarfism, hypogonadism, and neurological abnormalities such as progressive impairment of vision, hearing and speech, behavioral changes, intellectual disability, and problems with gait, leading to severe disability [3, 5].
The plantar alterations and lower limbs modify the static and dynamic posture [14,15], up to an impact level cranial mandibular causing malocclusion and mandibular prognathism