For the related issue of what it is to promote the satisfaction of one's desires, see Lin, "Simple Probabilistic Promotion"; Sharadin, "Checking the Neighborhood" and "Problems for Pure Probabilism
about Promotion (and a Disjunctive Alternative)"; Coates, "An Actual-Sequence Theory of Promotion"; Schroeder, Slaves of the Passions; and Finlay, Confusion of Tongues.
Saint Cicero and the Jesuits: The Influence of the Liberal Arts on the Adoption of Moral Probabilism
The choice between probabilism
and fuzziness is important.
Although not framed with this language, summit participants seemed to embrace the third perspective, that of architectural probabilism
, which suggests that behavior is not predictable and that the probability of behavior responses can be enhanced with thoughtful design.
Indeed, Alonso-Lasheras associates the absence of "the authority concept of participation in God's mind" with the important moral doctrine of probabilism
, which taught that, in the face of moral uncertainty, one might follow a probable opinion, even if the opposite opinion is more probable.
troll's chapter 7 (239-75) is a more extensive discussion of Anglican probabilism
versus Catholic infallibilism in Biblical exegesis.
75) Habits are a second nature and they are decisive for constituting a moral action--some interpreters have seen in that a tendency to fall into probabilism
13) As it well known, the current science tendency to move from determinism to probabilism
gives the opportunity to science to make better theories.
Key words: confession, Probabilism
, absolution, penitence, religious practices, religious orders, Jesuits, Capuchins, Franciscans; XVIIth Century, XVIIIth Century.
Nor is this merely a limited case-study; Grendler's excellent grasp of context allows us to grasp how the Jesuits at Mantua struggled to reconcile their curriculum with contemporary debates about Aristotelianism, moral probabilism
, and the very nature of pedagogy, as well as how the tempestuous politics of the time affected almost every aspect of life for the Gonzaga and their subjects alike.
maintained that a course of action might be followed 'if any authority had defended it', or if it was probable.
In contrast, what Probabilism
involved (and it was a more complex position than Pascal seems to have taken it to be) was an affirmation of "the liberty to follow one's own judgment of conscience instead of deponere conscientiam in order to follow the law or the confessor's opinion" (117).
1) In this light, environmental statutes like the Clean Air Act ("CAA"), Clean Water Act ("CWA"), and Toxic Substances Control Act ("TSCA") are the legal extensions of probabilism
and the "rational" pursuit of public health and safety--with conservation statutes like the Endangered Species Act ("ESA") following right behind them.
For the many Catholics who disagreed with the Jesuit theological doctrine of probabilism
, such political manuevering by the state put them on the defensive as somehow less than orthodox Catholics.
We then return to probabilism
with a characteristically neat article from Alan Hajek.