and recall of a traumatic event following traumatic brain injury.
In moderate TBI, longer periods of loss of consciousness (LOC) and posttraumatic amnesia
(PTA) follow the traumatic event.
Abbreviations: AAN = American Academy of Neurology, ANAM = Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, IED = improvised explosive device, LOC = loss of consciousness, MACE = Military Acute Concussion Evaluation, MTBI = mild traumatic brain injury, PCS = postconcussion syndrome, PTA = posttraumatic amnesia
, SAC = Standardized Assessment of Concussion, TBI = traumatic brain injury.
The four sections are (1) events that may increase the risk of TBI, such as exposure to an explosion; (2) immediate symptoms following the event including loss or altered consciousness or posttraumatic amnesia
; (3) new or worsening symptoms following the event; and (4) current symptoms that are consistent with TBI.
Agitation, cognition and attention during posttraumatic amnesia
. Brain Injury, 6(2), 155-160.
There were no significant differences in age, gender composition, or years of education between the SR and PR groups and healthy controls; there were no significant differences in GCS, loss of consciousness, duration of posttraumatic amnesia
, and types of accidents between the SR and PR group.
Table 1 shows that there was also a corresponding increase in self-reported moderate to very severe cognitive impairment with an increasing number of blast injuries, other injury exposures that could result in TBI, and episodes of loss of consciousness and posttraumatic amnesia
Ninety-one kids had moderate to severe TBI, meaning they lost consciousness for more than 30 minutes and had posttraumatic amnesia
for at least an hour.
To describe the severity of injury and the patient's condition, three indicators were used: the length of posttraumatic amnesia
(PTA), the Rancho Los Amigos (RLA) score , and the length of stay (LOS) at the rehabilitation unit.
Evidence-Based Cantu Grading System for Concussion (23) Grade Evidence Grade 1 (mild) No loss of consciousness; posttraumatic amnesia
a or postconcussion signs or symptoms lasting less than 30 minutes Grade 2 (moderate) Loss of consciousness lasting less than 1 minute; posttraumatic amnesia
a or postconcussion signs or symptoms lasting longer than 30 minutes but less than 24 hours Grade 3 (severe) Loss of consciousness lasting more than 1 minute or posttraumatic amnesia
a lasting longer than 24 hours; postconcussion signs or symptoms lasting longer than 7 days (a) Retrograde and anterograde.
But imaging might be used to rule out more serious traumatic brain injuries, such as intracranial hemorrhage in athletes with a suspected concussion who also have a loss of consciousness, posttraumatic amnesia
, persistently altered mental status, focal neurologic deficit, evidence of skull fracture, or signs of clinical deterioration.
The guidelines also include ratings for three different levels of posttraumatic amnesia
. Mild injury is defined as a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13-15, with 15 being completely normal, plus a 0-to 20-minute loss of consciousness (LOC) and amnesia lasting less than 24 hours.
Amanda suffered from posttraumatic amnesia
(PTA) as a result of her head injuries.
She had experienced posttraumatic amnesia
for three days.
The injury caused posttraumatic amnesia
for less than a day in 7% (indicative of a milder head injury), for 1-7 days in 21%, for 8-28 days in 42%, and for 29 or more days in 30%.