Agitation, cognition and attention during posttraumatic amnesia
There were no significant differences in age, gender composition, or years of education between the SR and PR groups and healthy controls; there were no significant differences in GCS, loss of consciousness, duration of posttraumatic amnesia
, and types of accidents between the SR and PR group.
According to the Department of Veterans Affairs (2004), levels of severity are defined by using one of three indexes: the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), length of loss of consciousness (LOC), and length of posttraumatic amnesia
TBI involves a postconcussional syndrome that includes: (1) a period of unconsciousness lasting for more than 5 minutes after the brain trauma, (2) a period of posttraumatic amnesia
lasting for more than 12 hours, and (3) a new onset of seizures that occurs within the first 6 months after the injury (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
Although there is insufficient evidence to establish a definite threshold for the severity of the closed head injury, specific criteria have been suggested, for example, two of the following: (1) a period of unconsciousness lasting more than 5 minutes, (2) a period of posttraumatic amnesia
that lasts more than 12 hours after the closed-head injury, or (3) a new onset of seizures (or marked worsening of a pre-existing seizure disorder that occurs in the 6 months after closed head injury.
Association between blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with posttraumatic amnesia
and impairment on Sensory Organization Test.
Currently, duration of unconsciousness and posttraumatic amnesia
are also considered in determining TBI severity.
In the civilian sector, the best validated tool is the Westmead Posttraumatic Amnesia
Scale (9) (Figure 1), but the military now uses the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (10) (MACE) (Figure 2).
Length of coma and/or posttraumatic amnesia
(PTA) is used to define the duration of the dysfunction.
Richard suffered weeks of posttraumatic amnesia
, which saw him order cottage pie each day in hospital then greet it with surprise.
Also, patients with posttraumatic amnesia
of any duration were 4 times more likely to have a poor outcome than a good outcome.
The study examined differences in outcome in relationship to concussion severity markers such as disorientation, posttraumatic amnesia
, retrograde amnesia, and change in mental status for more than 5 minutes.
Children with postconcussional disorder often experience one or more of the following symptoms: (1) a period of unconsciousness lasting for more than 5 minutes after the brain trauma, 2) a period of posttraumatic amnesia
lasting for more than 12 hours, and 3) a new onset of seizures that occurs within the first 6 months after the injury (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994).
The study examined the relationship between APOE e4 status and the initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, days of posttraumatic amnesia
(PTA), and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E).