Results of the study, clearly indicate that osmotic stress primarily damaged the spermatozoa internal structures more severely (mitochondria, acrosome and DNA) rather than plasma membrane
Our results showed that the tested triterpenic acids do affect the permeability of the plasma membrane
, and facilitate the entrance of the molecules, without causing necrotic effects (Mangoni et al.
Sperm plasma membrane
integrity and viability were observed higher (PLess than0.
For current densities higher than the typical value estimated above, the voltage-dependent sodium channels in the plasma membrane
become activated leading to further depolarization of the membrane and initiation of the action potential.
Spermatozoa morphology, motility, plasma membrane
integrity, acrosome integrity and DNA integrity were evaluated immediately after spermatozoa extraction.
Substituting those residues with alanine, which is hydrophobic, reduced lipid binding by 40-fold and stopped localization to the plasma membrane
Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS) as previously described was used to evaluate plasma membrane
integrity (Gohar et al.
The plasma membrane
of sperm plays an important function in fertilization of spermatozoa (Jeyendran et al.
Similarly, a plasma membrane
localized receptor-like protein (NtC7) functions in osmotic adjustment and its transcripts are upregulated rapidly after salt, osmotic and wounding stress (Tamura et al.
It is possible that these lipophilic compounds insert into the plasma membrane
of erythrocytes and alter their membrane fluidity.
Results: The results showed for the first time that marein significantly stimulates the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) and enhanced the translocation of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) to the plasma membrane
integrity: The integrity of the plasma membrane
was assessed with the LIVE/ DEAD[R] Sperm Viability Kit (Molecular Probes Inc, The Netherlands), as performed previously (16).
In cells, PIP3 concentrations in the plasma membrane
increased after cellular stimulation with growth factors, leading to activation of the PI3K-PKB pathway, a signaling cascade that regulates diverse cellular processes, including cell metabolism, survival, proliferation, apoptosis, growth, and migration.
These include plasma membrane
ion channels and transporters, including non-electrogenic symporters and antiporters.
Recent studies report that the sperm plasma membrane
is the primary site of cryodamage during freezing and thawing due to changes in its lipid and protein structure (Gao and Critser, 2000).