After the manufacturing step of polymer foams, gas ionization is an important step in the implementation of the piezoelectric effect
. When a high electric field  is applied across the materials, gas molecules in the cells get ionized and opposite charges are accelerated and implanted on each side of the cells.
Piezoelectric devices in COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5 are simulated using the Piezoelectric Effects
Electrical energy generated via piezoelectric effect
of PMN is efficiently dissipated through conductive network.
Due to the direct and converse piezoelectric effect
of the PZT patch, SAs can satisfy the dual functions of actuation and sensing.
The phenomenon of linear electromechanical interaction between the mechanical and electrical state in crystalline material with no inversion symmetry is called piezoelectric effect
. The effect is reversible in nature.
Electromechanical losses as described by [4,12] appear due to transformation of the electric energy (electric displacement D, polarization P) into mechanical deformation (stresses) owing to piezoelectric effect
. Thereby a considerable amount of heat is released, which is classified as heat losses (a self-heating) [9,13-16].
Thanks to the piezoelectric effect
, the specially designed rubber is able to convert mechanical movements into electrical charges.
A new system based on a piezoelectric effect
for electric power generation has been developed.
Electromechanical losses as described by [4, 13] appear due to transformation of the electric energy (electric displacement D, polarization P) into mechanical deformation (stresses) owing to piezoelectric effect
In such cantilever beam based energy harvesters, deflection of the beams due to vibration induced by the ambient sources results in mechanical stress and a voltage is induced due to piezoelectric effect
if the beam is made up of piezoelectric material .
In these studies, the modified couple stress theory was used for elastic beams whereas the electromechanical coupling effects, for example, piezoelectric effect
and flexoelectric effect, were not considered.
As per Nasa, PVDF is a 'thermoplastic fluoropolymer that is highly piezoelectric when poled.' Piezoelectric Effect
is essentially the ability of certain materials to generate an electric charge in response to applied mechanical stress.
General models for elastic materials with piezoelectric effect
, called electro-elastic materials, can be found in [4,15].
The ultrasound waves are generated by a piezoelectric effect
caused by the vibration of crystals within the head of the probe.
The piezoelectric effect
was originally discovered in 1880 by French physicists Jacques and Pierre Curie, and, before World War II, researchers discovered that certain ceramic materials could be made piezoelectric when subjected to a high polarising voltage, a process analogous to magnetising a ferrous material.