85) The standard of this social philosophy was the Scottish phrenologist
George Combe's 1828 Constitution of Man (which he referred to as his "bible of secularism"), one of the most popular books of the late 1830s; it transformed phrenology from a physiological science to a program of moral reform that could serve as a challenge to evangelical moral campaigns.
Of course, no phrenologist
or mainstream psychologist would dare express such opinions, at least in public; nevertheless, for the Catholic and Protestant Churches--those very institutions whose teachings were sending adherents in droves to the asylums--the science of mind was a new threat to their tyranny over the minds of men and women.
His advice for school teachers has the same validity as if he suggested phrenologists
make an adjustment to their procedures instead of condemning the whole pseudoscience of measuring bumps on a skull.
The Journal of Pan African Studies would like to welcome readers to our special edition that remembers and celebrates the intellectual struggles of a 'great African centered thinker' who brilliantly refuted and rejected the scientific arguments and claims of Euro-American phrenologists
and anthropologists who sought to prove Black inferiority and White superiority.
, for example, thought they had identified particular skull bumps that corresponded to religiosity.
Other sometimes itinerant practitioners in early America included phrenologists
In the 19th century, two groups of experts on the human psyche warred for dominance: phrenologists
In the 19th century phrenologists
claimed to be able to predict criminal behaviour through skull shape.
In 1830 George Combe, one of England's most prominent phrenologists
, explained that he could tell if a prospective servant was conscientious or untrustworthy by examining the bumps and bulges on his head.
6) seem to belong to the present, since they use fashionable techniques of the time: phrenologists
, chemists, and physicians are represented looking for any kind of activity in the brain of the "rentier," and by their puzzled looks it seems that they are finding none.
Indeed, as scholars such as Malini Johar Schueller and Scott Trafton have illuminated, the discipline of Egyptology was often employed throughout the nineteenth century by phrenologists
and advocates of polygenesis to argue that Africans were inherently subhuman and therefore should remain enslaved.
There had been numerous bayonets for sale, alongside swords, spears, cutlasses and daggers, a grim cornucopia of blades stacked on the floor beside an old oak roll-top desk, on which was sitting one of those white china heads phrenologists
used to show which sections of the skull supposedly correspond to different emotions.
, surgeons, anatomists and criminologists.
Fmri's new phrenologists
are also logical atomists, over a half-century after Wittgenstein refuted this earlier position of his once and-one suspects--for all (O Nuallain et al.
at 298 (commenting on the phrenologists
who examined Palmer's head and concluding that he must have been "utterly deficient in moral perception"); see also CARNELL, supra note 11, at 165 (commenting on Braddon's interest in Palmer).