is known from at least 10 pseudoscorpion families (Poinar et al.
muscaedomesticae make obligatory phoresy
, which means that the specimen cannot develop to adult or reproductive stage without phoretic transport (Amendt et al.
is a phylogenetically old behavior and is well known among pseudoscorpions (Judson, 2003).
in adult mayflies has never before been recorded.
We report the first record of chironomid phoresy
According to their role in ecosystem dynamics, these invertebrates are classified in three categories: explorers, acting as herbivores, parasitoids or predators; suppliers, serving as hosts to parasitoids or preys to predators; and facilitators, acting as pollinators, pathogen vectors or phoresy
(Thomazini and Thomazini, 2000).
by hemisarcoptes (Acari: Hemisarcoptidae) on Chilocorus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
is a common behavior for uropodine mites, particularly so among the uropodids.
For example, insects that reproduce on patchy ephemeral resources such as carrion, dung, and wood often carry a diverse community of wingless species who disembark and pursue a free-living existence along with their host (the use of one species for transport by another is termed phoresy
A linear regression of relative phoresy
score was performed separately on each trait, with the regression coefficient providing an estimate of the phoretic differential.
(2007) and Tizo-Pedroso & Del-Claro (2007) consider that due to the small size of pseudoscorpions (2-12 mm), their long distance travelling is limited, which is why phoresy
has proven to be an effective mechanism for transport and colonization of new habitats.
as migration-some functional aspects of phoresy
Published records of phoresy
by anopluran lice are extremely rare (Braack & Emerson 1986; Durden 1990; Hopkins 1949; Marshall 1981; Thompson 1933) and such cases are worthy of note.
is a complex symbiotic association that has evolved in many organisms as a result of spatial and temporal isolation of their habitats (O'Connor 1982).
Flightless beetles and stingless bees: phoresy
and scotocryptine beetles (Leiodidae) on their meliponine hosts (Apidae).