The state |[E.sub.g]; el> [cross product] |[E.sub.ex]; phonon> in the figure is a state represented by the direct product of the ground state |[E.sub.g]; el> of the electron and the excited phonon
state |[E.sub.ex]; phonon>.
The forces acting on the atoms in real phonon
crystals are determined by the interatomic interaction potential.
where, [bar.u] - the average phonon
velocity (speed of sound), n - the number of atoms per unit volume.
where [N.sub.WL] is the carrier number in the WL reservoir, [V.sub.WL] is the WL volume and [A.sub.w] ([A.sub.E]), [C.sub.w]([C.sub.E]) are the coefficients for phonon
and Auger-assisted relaxation, respectively, related to the WL (ES).
This generates an archaeal electromagnetic field of 10-7 Hz and a digoxin induced quantal pumped phonon
system using archaeal dipolar magnetite.
According to the micromechanism of thermal conduction, the thermal conduction of ceramics is mainly the result of phonon
At higher electric field, inter-valley optical phonon
emission dominates causing the drift velocity to saturate at around 0.
In addition to the interface/grain boundary effect, when the characteristic length of a constituent is below ~ 100 nanometer, the band structure and transport mechanism of carrier and phonon
in that nano-constituent are expected to be significantly different from those of the bulk counterpart due to the classic and quantum size effects.
All these bulk TE materials are characterized by a low lattice thermal conductivity, partly or primarily owing to the strong lattice anharmonicity, small phonon
group velocity, or extensive phonon
scattering by various lattice defects.
Here, closed-form expressions are derived for the components of the phonon
and phason stresses and electric displacement and field intensity factors created around a stack of parallel shear cracks subjected to nonuniform mechanical and electric loads in one-dimensional piezoelectric quasicrystals, using an extension of the method of dislocation arrays.
In this new realm, fundamental material properties, usually considered constant, are modulated in time and act as a source for phonon
With all the variety of modern versions of HTSC microscopic descriptions: phonon
, plasmon, spin, exciton, and other mechanisms, the central point of constructing the microscopic theory is the effect of electron pairing (Cooper effect).
is related to the phonon
displacement operators [A.sub.q]  in the form
When Professor Townes learned that solid state physicists called these oscillations optical phonons
, he realized that similar parametric interactions could occur between laser light and the acoustic branch of the phonon
spectrum, that is, between laser light and acoustic oscillations, or sound waves.
Hence, nine vibrations can be predicted at the zone-center optical phonon
modes as follows: 2[A.sub.1] + 1[A.sub.2] + 1[B.sub.1] + 1[B.sub.2] + 2[E.sub.1] + 2[E.sub.2], where six modes at the zone center 2[A.sub.1] + 2[E.sub.1] + 2[E.sub.2] are active in the Raman spectra [28, 29].