All leprosy cases having chronic diseases such as kidney failure, diabetes, and peripheral neuropathy, patients on certain medications that may aggravate symptoms like anti-nausea drugs (prochlorperazine or metoclopramide), antipsychotic drugs (haloperidol or phenothiazine
derivatives), antidepressants that increase serotonin, and some cold and allergy medications that contain sedating antihistamines, patients who were pregnant and patients taking alcohol were excluded from the study.
Lipogranuloma of the breast due to phenothiazine
Most frequently, retinal lesion occurring as a result of using phenothiazine
is retinitis pigmentosa.
1]-receptor blocker Dimenhydrinate Not rated Compatible Diphenhydramine Not rated Compatible Doxylamine Not rated Compatible Hydroxyzine Not rated Human data suggest low risk Meclizine Not rated Compatible Metoclopramide B (35) Compatible Phenothiazine
Prochlorperazine Not rated Compatible Promethazine C (36) Compatible Ondansetron B (37) Human data suggest low risk Pyridoxine hydrochloride A (38) Compatible Corticosteroid C (39) Human data suggest risk; Prednisone avoid during first 10 weeks of gestation Abbreviation: FDA, US Food and Drug Administration.
Commonly used antiemetic drug is prochlorperazine which is a phenothiazine
derivative that limits stimulation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone.
The compound phenothiazine
was used in various forms for drenching sheep and cattle for internal parasites.
The antipsychotic effects of phenothiazine
drugs, initially developed as antihistamines and antiemetics in the late 1940s, revolutionised the treatment of psychotic illness.
Potential drug delivery systems from maleic anhydride copolymers and phenothiazine
effects on psychological and psychophysiological dysfunction in chronic schizophrenics.
6) Administration of phenothiazine
, tetracycline, thiazides, or sulfonamides can also cause primary photosensitization.
See Andre Kahn & Denise Blum, Phenothiazines
and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, 70 PEDIATRICS 75 (1982) (reporting the findings of a study concluding that phenothiazine
is related to SIDS); Andre Kahn & Denise Blum, Possible Role of Phenothiazines
in Sudden Infant Death, 314 LANCET 364 (1979) (presenting evidence of a relationship between the administration of a phenothiazine
and sleep apnea, which could be related to SIDS); Andre Kahn, Daniele Hasaerts & Denise Blum, Phenothiazine
-Induced Sleep Apneas in Normal Infants, 75 PEDIATRICS 844 (1985) (reporting the findings of a study concluding that phenothiazine
is related to SIDS).
Photosensitization of biomolecules by phenothiazine
The most commonly prescribed drug was prochlorperazine - a high-potency phenothiazine
- which also is commonly prescribed for nausea, vomiting, and vertigo.
The choice of pathogen inactivation method used depends on the blood components for transfusionand includes the phenothiazine
colorant, methylene blue the solvent detergent method and the use of amotosalen (Bihl et al 2007).
, Succinyl choline and tricyclic antidepressants being more among the most common.