In situ hemodynamics of perforating veins
in chronic venous insufficiency.
Mid-term recurrence rate of incompetent perforating veins after combined superficial vein surgery and subfascial endoscopic perforating vein surgery.
Sonographic imaging of perforating vein (PV) associated with varicose vein and saphenous veins.
The DM exam was performed to verify that the DVS was normal and to examine changes to the superficial venous system (SVS) and the perforating veins
. At 30 and 180 days after the operation, the patients again underwent PPG and clinical exams to evaluate the results of the surgery.
A careful search for significant incompetent perforating veins
(IPVs) into the GSV should be made.
Incompetent perforating veins
detected in the absence of deep venous insufficiency were localised pre-operatively with duplex and ligated or avulsed through small incisions.
 In Europe, sclerotherapy with polidocanol foam under duplex ultrasound guidance has become standard treatment for intracutaneous telangiectases, subcutaneous varicose veins, transfascial perforating veins
, and venous malformations (Fig.
They inserted coils into the perforating veins
in order to block the blood flow.
The doctor has joined the Department of Vascular and Transplant Surgery, offering a variety of treatments including Endovenous Laser and Radio Frequency treatment of varicose veins, conventional surgery for varicose veins, ultrasound guided foam and liquid sclerotherapy of varicose veins and perforating veins
, treatment of venous leg ulcers, post phlebitic syndrome, leg swelling, cellulitis and lymphedema, deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
Primary varicose veins are always the long and short saphenous veins and are frequently associated with incompetent perforating veins
; the deep venous system is however normal.
Blood can also flow from the superficial to deep veins via communicating or perforating veins
that pierce the fascia at the level of the ankle, calf or thigh.
Surgery to directly ligate incompetent perforating veins
has not had satisfactory results, in part because the surgery itself creates a wound.
The term chronic venous insufficiency refers to the venous valvular incompetence in the superficial, deep and/or perforating veins
. Incompetence of the vein valves permits reversal of flow and promotes venous hypertension in the distal segments.
 The ultrasonic marker of recurrent lower limb varicose veins was the re-emergence of dilated saphenous and perforating veins
as well as valve apparatus failure in the operated leg.
Secondary varicose veins are caused by valvular damage after deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and recanalization that gives rise to incompetent deep and perforating veins
Poor venous drainage and resulting venous hypertension increase transmural pressure in post-capillary vessels, producing skin capillary damage, fluid exudation, edema, and tissue malnutrition, which favors inflammation, infection, thrombosis, and tissue necrosis with lipodermatosclerosis and eventual ulceration.