At the same time, the double construction has a function on the predicate, emphasizing the perfectivity
of the event.
58) Moreover, Pasquier deprives Delie of the oxygen of reading by refraining from quoting a word from it, and then uses the same Passe Simple ("mourut"), with its aura of perfectivity
or finality, for the death of both author and work: "Il affecta [PS] une obscurite sans raison.
Although the grammatical development in understanding perfectivity
took place between the young and middle age groups, the development in understanding ongoingness lagged behind and appeared to take place in the (later) transition between the middle and older age groups.
allomorphy occurring within the L-forming class is quite easy to predict and the class as such has been subject to much more of leveling and innovation as compared to the older T-class (Schmidt, p.
He also makes use of the progressive present indicating durativity, as opposed to a non-progressive, which would indicate perfectivity
, which again he never uses.
is only one of the many functions reduplication can have; understood in a broader, non-Indo-European context it can well indicate plural or collective (Malay, Aztec, Hausa, Dakotan, Japanese, Mandarin Chinese), it can serve the purpose of intensification, increase (Turkish, Celtic, Mandarin Chinese), diminution or attenuation (Cantonese), etc.
Aktionsart is typically distinguished from grammatical aspect that makes the distinction between imperfectivity and perfectivity
of the action that no other element of the sentence can neutralise.
1) can turn into markers of perfectivity
(specifying a "mode of action").
habitual past" in the immediately preceding section, and in any case confuses perfectivity
(which does not necessarily entail past reference) with past tense, as marked by the auxiliary.
Slavic verbal prefixes usually contribute additional meanings together with the spatial ones: with verbs of perception, na- adds perfectivity
and telicity, and so this group shares semantic features with the verbs discussed in Section 3.
The use of the verb does not in these clauses imply past tense, perfectivity
, or becoming, but simply the negation of a NVC.
Given that the l-participle expresses distance based on its retrospective viewpoint, and if the epistemic immediacy accounts of the Present Tense and the Aorist are correct, this would suggest that the existing Croatian tense system (at least for these tenses) is based on a three-way distinction of imperfectivity, perfectivity
is also conveyed by resultative verb complements such as the suffix -wan ('finish') (and by reduplication in a construction known as the "tentative," which is not considered here).
Crosslinguistically, the Slavic-style perfectivity
is peculiar for its being particularly sensitive to actionality distinctions, "traditionally connected with the inherent semantics of the verb as a lexical item" (Dahl 2000: 17).
On this account, completive status marks perfectivity
and assertive modality; incompletive status marks imperfectivity and assertive modality, and subjunctive status marks perfectivity
and nonassertive modality.