Although the grammatical development in understanding perfectivity
took place between the young and middle age groups, the development in understanding ongoingness lagged behind and appeared to take place in the (later) transition between the middle and older age groups.
allomorphy occurring within the L-forming class is quite easy to predict and the class as such has been subject to much more of leveling and innovation as compared to the older T-class (Schmidt, p.
is only one of the many functions reduplication can have; understood in a broader, non-Indo-European context it can well indicate plural or collective (Malay, Aztec, Hausa, Dakotan, Japanese, Mandarin Chinese), it can serve the purpose of intensification, increase (Turkish, Celtic, Mandarin Chinese), diminution or attenuation (Cantonese), etc.
Decomposition of perfectivity
and inchoativity and the meaning of the particle le in Mandarin Chinese.
Hence, if there is a viewpoint-based contrast in linking, linking of the lowest-ranking role sets the default under perfectivity.
Indeed, relic predications arguably have a strong affinity for perfectivity, while atelic predications have an affinity for imperfectity (cf.
Second, the claim that the habitualgeneric reading of the English Simple Present is connected to perfectivity runs against the typologically well established observation that habituality normally correlates with imperfectivity.
Since the GEN operator that makes stative verbs imperfective is also involved in habitual situations--thus, presumably, also in sentences containing the Simple Present of the allegedly perfective English eventive verbs, in their standard habitual-generic reading--it turns out that the very same operator (namely, GEN) is involved both in the imperfectivity of stative predicates and in the perfectivity of eventive ones.
On the one hand, they explicitly state that perfectivity should not be confused with telicity (p.
According to this view, one can say that perfectivity is marked in the case of the Present and the Imperfect, while imperfectivity is marked in the case of the Simple Past, whatever the specific type of morphological implementation.
Clements describes copula choice using a series of features, including [[+ or -] nexus], which replaces the need for the use of perfectivity
in his analysis.
, which I will now discuss dulcis in fundo.
It occupies the head of a functional-projection perfectivity
phrase (PerfP), a position higher than the one in English.
, for example, affects the meaning of some verbs much more than it does others.