20) It is important to note, though, that the present and the perfect participle have a lot in common.
Concerning word order, we may note that the perfect participle shows a tendency to occur in pre-finite position (cf.
According to an anonymous reviewer, however, it is less plausible to analyze the perfect participle form as root infinitive equivalent since this form corresponds to the traditionally called aparemfato, which is practically not present in the input speech of mothers.
What matters for the present purpose is the possibility of subjunctive (and, perhaps, perfect participle marking) to be related to the future/ modal segment.
32) According to this rule, the perfect participle of drincan, a transitive verb, should be passive, and druncen should mean 'having been drunk', just as sungen means 'having been sung'.
Whether or not the active meaning of the perfect participle of drincan is a result of its transitive-intransitive character, it is quite clear that druncen when used as a participle does mean, as Wrenn notes, 'having drunk' rather than 'having been drunk'.
Moreover it is perhaps easier, for metrical reasons, to interpret it as a non-desiderative nominal stem of some kind, or indeed as a perfect participle, than as a further example of the desiderative adjective formation.
However, although it is not recognized as such by Kellens (1984: 424-27) or Hoffmann and Forssman (2004: 238-39), there is no reason not to analyze the form as an unreduplicated perfect participle, in which case its transitivity is unremarkable.
The constructions with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] also occur very frequently, especially those with the present and perfect participle
(in fact, the numbers presented here are based on a selection of the examples mentioned by Wheeler 1891, cf.
The Rigvedic instance of corresponds exactly to the meaning of the perfect participle
jajnivams- in RV 3.
Confusion is caused also by the fact that the imperfect participle and the perfect participle
often formally coincide.
Since the Tocharian PP is obviously cognate in its reduplication and endings with the perfect participle
of the classical IE languages, the task is to explain how it came to be paired semantically with the preterite, which continues the PIE aorist--while the (proto-)perfect with *o ~ *[empty set] ablaut became one of the sources of the Tocharian subjunctive.
14d), which is a perfect participle
, we can safely assume the same interpretation for raraksana-.
The active perfect participle
in Indo-Iranian languages is formed by attaching the suffix uah-/-us- (long, full, and zero grades) to the weak form of the perfect stem.
Even though "this kind of development, namely the influence on the verbal system, of the use of an originally nominal form, that is, an adjective which may be equivalent to a perfect participle