Tovmasyan, if you claim that the penitentiaries
are not overloaded?
According to Throness, the origins and purpose of the English Penitentiaries
can be meaningfully interpreted within these cultural parameters.
For most of the nineteenth century, female prisoners remained social outcasts and pariahs, incarcerated alongside of males in separate annexes, wings, or units either within or attached to their state's male penitentiaries. The descriptions of the women's quarters contained in most states' annual reports described wretched conditions, overcrowding, lack of supervision, neglect, enforced idleness, and occasional hints of sexual exploitation or abuse.
Although Illinois was not one of the nation's leading states in terms of penal evolution, it may have been more representative than the far more well-documented histories of the first penitentiaries in Pennsylvania, New York, or Massachusetts.
Hirsch asserts that changes in the demographics of towns and villages motivated authorities to build penitentiaries. As the community grew in population and diversity, the traditional forms of punishment no longer carried the same approbations of shame as earlier methods.
Consequently, penitentiaries persisted as "a monument to failure" (117).
The Ombudsman qualified the general conditions in penitentiaries
Most penitentiaries for sexually and morally outcast females were established and operated by another group of Victorian sexual radicals - Anglican nuns.(4) These women, who rejected their culture's assumption that marriage and motherhood were the desired goal and instinctive norm for all women, embraced celibacy as an alternative to marriage.
In the early 1840s there seem to have been fewer than a dozen penitentiaries within the United Kingdom, almost all linked to the Established Church, and staffed and managed by men.