The pectoral girdle
is similar in all Urotrygon species.
2 Table 2 Measurements of head and pectoral girdle
spines of larval swordspine rockfish (Sebastes ensifer) collected in the Southern California Bight during the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations survey in April 1999 and the Baseline Cowcod Conservation Area (CCA) survey in February 2002, and given as percentages of head length (HL): posterior preopercular ( PP01, PP03, PP04) and anterior preopercular (APOl and AP04), parietal (PA), nuchal (NU), pterotic (PT), posttemporal (PST), postorbital (PSO), and first lower infraorbital (LIOl) spines.
The ossification starting time of pectoral girdle
is shown in table 1.
with a sharp dorsal process on cleithrum, reaching one third of length of supracleithrum.
The sternohyoideus muscle connects the anterior margin of the fixed pectoral girdle
to the central region of the depressible hyoid bar.
A midline incision was given on the abdomen, the pectoral girdle
was removed and the heart was exposed.
Musculature associated with pectoral girdle
Postmortem radiographs demonstrated a normal right flipper and pectoral girdle
and a markedly shortened and distorted left humerus (Fig 1B).
63), and by the number of proximate radials in the pectoral girdle
(five in Hemibrycon pautensis vs.
Although Andriashev (1986) and Andriashev and Stein (1998) demonstrated the importance of the pectoral girdle
in distinguishing among species and in explaining liparid relationships, we did not dissect, clear, and stain a pectoral girdle
from these specimens owing to the high probability of damaging them and destroying other characters (Chernova, 2001; Chernova and Stein, 2002).
small stubby fins that are fused by soft tissue at the base of the pectoral girdle
Standring S, Gray's Anatomy: Pectoral Girdle
and Upper Limb, 39th edition, Churchill Livingstone and Elsevier, 2008.
SUMMARY: The cephalic and pectoral girdle
structures of the heptapterin Hepapterus mustelinus ('Nemuroglanis clade') are described and compared to those of two representatives of the other, more plesiomorphic, main heptapterin group, namely Goeldiella eques and Rhamdia guatemalensis ('basal clade'), as well as of several other catfishes, as the foundation for a discussion on the synapomorphies and phylogenetic relationships of the Heptapterinae.
variabilis are of type I (a-z) of Hallacher (1974) in which the anterior muscle mass originates from the occipital region of the neuroeranium, attaches to the pectoral girdle
near the insertion of Baudelot's ligament, passes between the epineural and pleural ribs of vertebrae 3 and 4, passes ventral to the pleural rib of vertebrae 5, and continues posteriorly as three tendons that insert on the pleural ribs of vertebrae 8, 9, and 10.
The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice in Pectoral girdle
and upper limb.