Gillnets are used to catch bar jacks, porgies, ballyhoos, grunts, parrotfishes
, and various snappers, whereas trammel nets catch spiny lobsters, grunts, parrotfishes
, and boxfishes.
On a healthy reef, grazing herbivores such as turtles and parrotfishes
, along with other fishes, control the growth of tiny photosynthetic algae, the starting point of coral reefs' food web.
Three species of parrotfishes
were observed in a multispecies spawning aggregation at the same time and location just outside the breaking reef line along the southwest coast of Bermuda about 500 m from the shoreline in June and July 2003 (Luckhurst 2011).
The reserve allowed the number of parrotfishes
to increase and because parrotfish eat seaweeds, the corals could grow freely without being swamped by weeds.
Effects of fishing on sex-changing Caribbean parrotfishes
, family Scaridae, are characterized as specialized perciform fishes that closely associate with reefs and are primarily tropical in distribution (Schultz 1958, 1969 and Nelson 1994).
Damselfish V Pomacentrus partitus Bicolor damselfish V Pomacentrus planifrons Threespot damselfish T Sphyraenidae Sphyraena barracuda Great barracuda V, L Tr, Sn Labridae Labridae Wrasses V Bodianus rufus Spanish hogfish V Clepticus parrae Creole wrasse V Halichoeres garnoti Yellowhead wrasse V Thalassoma bifasciatum Bluehead wrasse V Scaridae Scaridae Parrotfishes
V Scarus sp.