Moreover, since "such men were pardoners
first of all, rather than agents of a particular institution," (36) and sometimes acted "for several bodies, not only consecutively, but concurrently," (37) this may explain why there are similarities between the texts under discussion.
Indulgences also had significance in causing coin to circulate in the realm and with trade because some pardoners
were wandering chapmen.
Swanson's impressively extensive study seeks to dispel the myths surrounding pardoners and the indulgences (pardons) they sold.
He also considers in detail the contemporary perception of those involved; in particular, he examines the portrayal of pardoners in manuscript and primed literature--particularly that seminal depiction of a pardoner by Geoffrey Chaucer.
According to Gerald Owst, the most prominent abuses connected with pardoners
were of three kinds.
But, a modem alternative is possible, one that would provide a good standard independent of state pardoners
For Robb, the official story of where and how Caravaggio met his end makes no sense--Porto Ercole is well north of Rome, hardly on the way from Naples --while the complicated story of what happened to the pictures he was bringing with him to Rome, supposedly as gifts for his pardoners
, suggests to Robb advance information and conspiracy.
Friars, bishops, pardoners
and parish priests equally came under his hammer.
resided in Europe seven years; and of another, Alexander Mavrocorrato [sic], nephew of Prince Caraya, we heard a short time since in Italy, where he was reading Greek with some friends of ours, and doubtless cultivating those mutual dispositions which end in making men conquerors and pardoners
If it were not so Pardoners
might flourish to this day doing a roaring trade in the sale of Indulgences for the remission of penance.
The notes comprise: 'A Simoniacal Moment in Piers Plowman', in which Alan Fletcher discusses the deals between parish priests and pardoners
referred to at B.
2); and to confessional practices, Lollardy, parish life, friars, pardoners
, and the ecclesiastical courts (ch.
Cheap print outlining devotional exercises continued after 1536, but the material printed specifically to encourage acquisition of indulgences, especially from pardoners
, had no future.
have long been associated with greed, deceit, exploitation, and abuse in later medieval English history and literature, but another view of the sources suggests that church authorities may well have been able to monitor these preachers much better than the traditional view allows.
The Reformation and the onset of the Elizabethan Age swept away the Mendicants themselves, but the phoney Pardoners
, the Reliquarii -vendors of Relics of the Saints (men who could live for a week off the sale of a bone fragment from "St Mark's thigh") - and so on were familiar figures to the gullible peasantry in scarcely-populated areas of the countryside, fathering bastards and spreading disease as they practised their trade.