b) It is the equivalent in the voice of pianistic touch--it expresses affect, mood, and atmosphere, which communicates itself to us and which we communicate to it; in shifting from a quantitative to a qualitative perspective, it shifts us from the givens of language to the auscultations of paralanguage
2001), indicators easily recognizable by coders (Vocatives, Paralanguage
, Salutations & Phatics, Invitation) had higher kappa coefficients.
For example, much Egyptian culture is represented in this play through some of the nonverbal subcodes such as paralanguage
, haptics, proxemics, and olfactics.
These elements or forms include: communication environment (or monochromic and polychronic), personal space, kinetic or body motion and paralanguage
Generally, nonverbal factors fit into five categories: eye contact, gesticulations, paralanguage
, posture and overall facial expression.
A recently published book Lesikar's Basic Business Communication by Lesikar, Pettit and Flatley (1999) devoted approximately three and one-half pages to nonverbal communication and included the nature of nonverbal communication, types of nonverbal communication which includes body language, space, time, paralanguage
, and other types of nonverbal communication.
Nonverbal communication behaviors have been classified into the following codes: kinesics (known as body language, including eye, facial, and body movement); paralanguage
or vocalics (vocalizations other than words, such as sighs and moans, vocal pitch and volume); haptics (touch); proxemics (spatial distances); chronemics (time); olfactics (smell); and artifacts (use of objects, such as jewelry) (Burgoon et al.
The Poetic Paradigm: Levels of Linguistic Structure 1 2 3 4 Language Paralanguage
Prosody Syntax Semantics Phonetics Phonology
facial expression, paralanguage
or tone or voice), but it also involves the ability to identify one's own emotions.
The officer also can demonstrate empathy using paralanguage
by modulating the rate, pitch, and tone of speech to match the interviewee's.
She describes communicating on all channels, including the concept that speech is an oral language code, that paralanguage
changes the vernal message, and that nonverbal codes send silent messages, then works one-on-one with building communications confidence, developing interpersonal skills and interviewing effectively.
It's also a fascinating treatment of language - spoken and narrative language as well as paralanguage
, that way of communicating nonverbally, through the body and through the pace, tone, and volume of speech.
The English Tone of Voice: Essays in Intonation, Prosody, and Paralanguage