A definition of paralanguage
would be the manner in which the message is transmitted, i.e.
This session explores nonverbal communication--from facial expressions, eye contact, body movement, paralanguage
(tone, inflection, rate), our use of space, etc., and how they relate to the feeling of closeness and positivity of other people.
The process of wordless communication (nonverbal communication) includes: body language, face expression, eye contact and actions of looking, paralanguage
, touch, use of distance, use of time.
The use of nonverbal communication in the communication process is through kinesic language and paralanguage
. For this, they make use of observation and perception with greater intensity in the care of facial expressions and the eyes and the voice is used.
This conclusion also supports previous studies that report missing social cues in CMC can be compensated for with response time; humorous or personalized message content; or paralanguage
and emoticons, such as happy and sad faces (Picciano, 2002; Richardson & Swan, 2003; Rourke et al., 2001; Taylor et al., 2011).
This focus tends to reduce attention to the paralanguage
and gestural components of speech, or ignore them entirely.
Sue and Sue (2008) explained that cultural differences could cause misunderstandings of implicit communication, including proxemics (interpersonal space), kinesics (body movements), paralanguage
(vocal cues) and high-low context communication (degree of reliance on non-verbal cues).
Last, but not least, paralanguage
 is an additional important factor to keep in mind in effective communication.
The notion is that lovers should be ever ready for sex, "sex" should be effortless, requiring only paralanguage
rather than verbal communication, everyone ought to have great sex, and those who do not attain it are somehow defective.
(5) See for example, Andrea Ciccarelli's suggestions for "stressing the diachronic development of a language as culture," from paralanguage
and onomatopoeia, and etymology, to proverbs (565-571); Robert J.
In order to address this problem, the CoSESM model adopts the Basic Triple Structure (Poyatos, 1984) in which language, kinesics, and paralanguage
are integrated in a unitary communicative system.
As Polhemus (2000, cited in Palloff & Pratt, 2007) stated, students were able to give their points of view when they used personal forms of address, acknowledgment of others, expressions of feeling and humor, sharing, and the use of textual paralanguage
symbols such as emoticons, font colors, different fonts, capitalization, and symbols or characters for expression in their post interventions.