REM sleep, also known as paradoxical sleep
, is the sleep state during which we have most of our dreams and is involved in the regulation of emotions and memory consolidation.
Egydio et al., "The dual effect of paradoxical sleep
deprivation on murine immune functions," Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.
Naghsh, "Susceptibility to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in an animal model of paradoxical sleep
deprivation," Sleep Medicine, vol.
Chen, "Paradoxical sleep
deprivation impairs spatial learning and affects membrane excitability and mitochondrial protein in the hippocampus," Brain Research, vol.
In the epileptic rats, however, from attentive wakefulness the animal goes directly to Sra or from relaxed wakefulness to pre-paradoxical sleep, but never to paradoxical sleep
. In Figure 5, the hypnograms of both epileptic (below) and normal (above) rats are displayed, recording a high overall difference between the two graphs.
ECoG and EMG traces were used to visually score the different behavioral states of the SWC, i.e., awake (W), SWS, intermediate sleep (IS), and paradoxical sleep
Suchecki, "Glucocorticoids are not responsible for paradoxical sleep
deprivation-induced memory impairments," Sleep, vol.
METHODS: The study consisted of two groups: a control (C) group and a paradoxical sleep
deprivation by 96 h (PSD) group.
"The paradox of paradoxical sleep
is this: mental activity peaks when we sleep most deeply." Sleep wakes us up:
REM sleep (also known as "paradoxical sleep
") is characterized by irregular, low-voltage fast brain waves.
Jerking limbs, twitching ears, and groans are common in large animals during paradoxical sleep
. Just like humans, the animal is paralyzed except for sexual arousal and rapid eye movements.
On the basis of co-expression of such behavioural features belonging to mutually exclusive states of consciousness, Jouvet and his colleagues termed this state as "paradoxical sleep
After approximately 90 minutes, the body moves into REM sleep, a stage that is sometimes referred to as paradoxical sleep
. Contrary to what many believe, this deep state of sleep is anything but restful, especially in the brain, where activity tends to increase and fluctuate rapidly.
Different behaviours during paradoxical sleep
without atonia depend on pontine lesion site.