Non-native plants and animals have invaded much of Hawaii, but thanks to inaccessibility, Kalaupapa and its adjacent hillsides harbor rare remnants of the islands' original flora and fauna, such as Carter's panic grass
and haha trees, whose sticky sap was once used by Hawaiians to catch birds.
In the fall, the plain was a sea of tall native grasses, including big bluestem, little bluestem, Indian grass, and switchgrass or panic grass
. In recent years sandplain gerardia has been found on the Hempstead plains.
(1992) and Mushtaque et al., (2009) who stated that Cenchrus ciliaris and Blue panic grass
(Panicum antidotale ) cut at the end of growing season produced taller plants (73.8 cm) than those clipped at 3, 6 and 9 weeks, respectively.
Researchers discovered the original grass-fungus arrangement in a species of what's called panic grass
, Dichanthelium lanuginosum.
They are Betula populifolia (gray birch), Carex scabrata, Corallorrhiza trifida (coral root), Gerardia pedicularia ambigens (clammy false foxglove), Hemicarpa drummondii, Hippuris vulgaris (mare's tail), Lechea stricta (bush pinweed), Lemna perpusilla (least duckweed), Linnaea borealis (twin flower), Lonicera canadensis (American fly honeysuckle), Oryzopsis pungens (short-horned rice grass), Panicum lucidum (bog panic grass
), Psilocarya nitens (bald rush), Pyrola secunda (one-sided shinleaf), Scleria reticularis (netted nut rush), Shepherdia canadensis (russet buffaloberry), Trillium cernuum macranthum (nodding trillium), and Utricularia resu pinata (small purple bladderwort).