The MnPO also receives projections from catecholaminergic A2 neurons present in NTS (an area of the CNS that integrates afferences from the carotid and peripheral osmoreceptors
or sodium receptors activate circuits that subserve thirst and sodium appetite, and a parallel inhibitory circuit of sodium appetite involves the LPBN.
. Within the hypothalamus, osmoreceptor
cells sense changes in ECF osmolality.
In addition, there is a decrease in the sensitivity of the volume osmoreceptors
responsible for stimulating thirst (Stachenfeld, Dipietro, Nadel, & Mack, 1997; Toto, 1994).
in the hypothalamus itself cause the pituitary to increase ADH levels when plasma osmolality increases as little as 1-2% [2,7] Baroreceptors, especially in the heart and the carotid sinus,  monitor changes in blood volume and pressure and indirectly signal the hypothalamus to regulate ADH according to perceived changes.
in the hypothalamus respond when plasma osmolarity changes by as little as one per cent, first stimulating ADH release and then thirst.
Alternatively, mouthpart osmoreceptors
might provide information about the chemical quality of prey items.
When plasma osmolality rises, it stimulates osmoreceptors
located in the hypothalamus, which, in turn, sends signals to the vasopressin synthesizing cells located in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus.
Strategically located near the supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus are osmoreceptors
which create a feedback control system for ADH secretion.
in the hypothalamus are sensitive to overall fluid balance and release ADH accordingly.
Water-permeability of the late distal tubule is influenced by antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which is produced by the hypothalamus and released in response to input by systemic baroreceptors, osmoreceptors
, and angiotensin II.
and the amphipod Gammarus oceanicus, and Tazaki and Tanino (1973) concluded that the antennae of the spiny lobster Panuliris japonicus have mechanoreceptors that also function as osmoreceptors
. There is also evidence that the legs of crustaceans have receptors that provide important information about salinity.