It is crucial to know that the concern of the applicability of dual-route models of reading is not restricted to Spanish, but has also been expressed in other languages with transparent orthographies
(see Karanth, 2003).
Hence, the alphabetic orthographies
map the oral language at the level of phoneme, and this segmentation of the spoken words into phonemes should pave the way for the acquisition of word decoding (Shankweiler & Liberman, 1972).
The information of interest here describes the bottlenecks associated with the alphabetic writing systems including the fully transparent orthography of the Finnish language, the slightly less transparent Dutch writing and the non-alphabetic Chinese where the requirements of the initial learning (of Pinyin) is close to that needed for that of the other two orthographies
but those of the later stages of learning (i.
Cardoso-Martins & Pennington, 2004; Schatschneider, Fletcher, Francis, Carlson, & Foorman, 2004), a number of studies on consistent orthographies
found that phonological awareness measures no longer affect reading after the first grade (Landerl & Wimmer, 2000, 2008).
Instead, the Malay and Tamil groups, who are exposed to other alphabetic or syllabic orthographies
, performed better on the five focal words than their percentage of the sample would indicate.
An accumulating number of studies suggest that learning to read in English is more challenging, and possibly qualitatively different than, learning to read other European orthographies
(Goswami, Zeigler, Dalton & Schneider, 2003).
It could be argued that since there are four Cornish orthographies
represented that a comprehensive pronunciation guide would be difficult, yet even a rough guideline to pronunciation might have been useful.
Most alphabetic orthographies
, including German, Spanish, Dutch and Italian, are said to be 'shallow' or 'transparent' in that graphemes in these systems generally represent only one phoneme.
As a case in point to illustrate the remarks above, the case of orthographies
with Semitic samech will be discussed.
In this paper I survey the orthographic practices, past and present, used in writing Sranan, to argue that orthographies
are shaped less by the phonological facts of the language concerned than by social and cultural factors in the context where the orthography is used.
the contrast with the more disciplined orthographies
of the West Midlands is particularly striking.
There have been further discussions of the two orthographies
in the editions of Atkins, Grattan and Sykes, and Stanley,(1) and a more detailed study by Breier.
Multilingualization means making software handle multiple cultural conventions, such as characters, scripts, languages and orthographies
Phonologists and phoneticians have grappled with reading scripts and designing orthographies
for unwritten languages as technical challenges, but until now few have considered the social implications of nuts-and-bolts scripts and orthography themselves.
The citations on Native culture and indigenous orthographies
are hardly complete, but the inferences Hills draws from the literature he does cite are often profound.