Mass campaigns conducted for a brief period (days to weeks) in which 1 dose of oral poliovirus vaccine
is administered to all children aged <5 years, regardless of vaccination history.
Investigations of clinical isolations of oral poliovirus vaccine
strains between 2000 and 2005 in Southern Taiwan.
Shedding of vaccine viruses with increased antigenic and genetic divergence after vaccination of newborns with monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine
Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), strains that are genetically divergent from the oral poliovirus vaccine
(OPV) viruses, fall into three categories: 1) circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) from outbreaks, 2) immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs) from patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), and 3) ambiguous VDPVs (aVDPVs), which cannot be more definitively identified.
In patients with immunodeficiency diseases, persistent infections may become established with live oral poliovirus vaccine
(OPV) and develop into VDPVs (1).
Since it was launched in 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) - spearheaded by national governments, the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and UNICEF - has relied on mass campaigns using the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine
, which contains all three types of the virus.
The study is part of an ongoing effort to develop strategies on when and how to stop oral poliovirus vaccine
(OPV) immunization once the disease is eradicated, said Dr.
The ACIP, an advisory group of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, recommended a sequential schedule of 2 doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) followed by 2 doses of oral poliovirus vaccine
(OPV), but also considered the all OPV or IPV schedules acceptable.
With the certification of wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) eradication in 2015 and the global replacement of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine
(tOPV) containing Sabin poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 with bivalent OPV containing only Sabin poliovirus types 1 and 3 during April-May 2016, poliovirus type 2 (PV2) is now an eradicated pathogen.
However, RV1 is administered together with oral poliovirus vaccine
in Brazil but with inactivated poliovirus vaccine in Mexico.
All countries with PV2 detected in 2017 (except Afghanistan) conducted immunization campaigns using monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine
type 2 (mOPV2) in response to cVDPV2 isolates detected in Pakistan and Nigeria.
Also added to the insert are data on safety and immune responses on the concomitant administration of Infanrix with other vaccines, including the oral poliovirus vaccine
, pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine, and Hib conjugate vaccines.
Human approved mucosal vaccines so far involve live attenuated pathogens, and for this reason oral poliovirus vaccine
is recommended after receiving the injected inactivated virus, since a limited number of polio cases occur after immunization with the live attenuated virus.
Fifty-eight percent of children with polio had never received oral poliovirus vaccine
(OPV) either through routine or supplementary immunization (i.
Because oral poliovirus vaccine
(OPV) is known to cause paralysis in about 1 in every 13 million doses, its use was discontinued in Canada in 1997 and in the United States in 2000.