1986) and the newly modified instrument (PGOT--perceived group optimism test) (both shown in appendix A) at the end of all the exercises.
After a review of the literature and the currently available measures, two specific measures for optimism seemed to be best suited for this research.
The questions for the LOT-R include ten items used to measure the level of optimism and/or pessimism in individuals.
1986), and the LOT-R scale, a modified instrument was developed to retrieve the perceptions of the individual group members--specifically, the perceived optimism level of the group.
Following the practices of the reviewed literature, the data regarding the optimism of the group was averaged for each responding team.
As a result of the factor analysis, six variables loaded at acceptable levels, OP1 on individual optimism 0.
The pessimism variables were reverse scored for optimism contribution and reliability assessed using Cronbach alpha.
The summations of individual optimism scores were calculated to determine a total optimism that would be contributed to the group.
Correlations between individual optimism contributed and group optimism levels were r = 0.