Ocular coherence tomography (Topcon 3D-2000, Topcon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) of the left optic nerve head showed an importantly edematous optic nerve head associated with subretinal fluid around the optic disc
and an important diffuse thickening of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (Figure 4).
b) Monitor in practice with visual fields and optic disc
Loss of vision can be the presenting symptom in some of the cases due to haemorrhages or exudates in the macula or optic disc
oedema or optic neuropathy.
Exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) other diseases that can cause edema of the optic disc
, such as a brain tumor; (2) other ocular diseases that can cause VF defects, such as retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, and glaucoma; (3) complications from systemic autoimmune diseases; (4) any evidence suggestive of temporal arteritis, such as a history of scalp tenderness, Westergren sedimentation rate ≥40 mm/h, or positive C-reactive protein; and (5) those without a detailed medical record.
In diurnal raptors RGC density showed the highest value at the level of the optic disc
When measuring RNFL thickness with this new software, the fovea is first identified automatically (Figure 2), then the optic disc
margins are automatically detected (Figure 3), and RNFL thickness is measured based on quadrants determined using the anatomic axis connecting the fovea and ONH center (Figure 4).
At optic disc
cube protocol, 6 mm x 6 mm area was scanned with 200 x 200 axial scan (A-scan).
The parameters checked clinically were best corrected visual acuity(BCVA) using a Snellen's chart, optic disc
appearance, decrease or resolution of intra retinal haemorrhages, appearance of retinal veins and improvement in macular oedema.
Coverage encompasses visual fields, supranuclear and internuclear gaze pathways, nystagmus and related ocular oscillations, syndromes of the cranial nerves, cavernous sinus syndrome, the pupil, the swollen optic disc
, optic atrophy, myasthenia and ocular myopathies, eyelid disorders, headache, carotid artery disease and the eye, nonorganic visual disorders, disorders of higher visual function, neurocutaneous disorders, and neuroimaging.
A recent meta-analysis of GWAS within the International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium revealed that rs7916697, among others, significantly affected at least one of the optic disc
The detection and diagnosis of glaucoma are related to tracing the changes in the optic cup which is a portion of optic disc
Several important anatomical features appear in the fundus images, such as the retinal blood vessels, the optic disc
, and the fovea, as shown in Figure 1.
The optic disc
is the point of exit for all retinal nerve fibers to the brain, and thus, it is important to observe the optic disc
in glaucoma management.
Patients with diabetic retinopathy and other diseases that may cause visual field loss or optic disc
abnormalities, an unreliable visual field test (>15% false positives or false negatives or >20% fixation losses), history of intraocular surgery or patients for which there was an inability to clinically view or photograph the optic discs
due to media opacity or poorly dilating pupils were excluded.
It has been proposed that the exfoliation process itself might, to some extent, be a risk factor for glaucomatous optic disc