In animal studies, protective immunity against extra-cellular microorganisms, such as gram-positive bacteria, is influenced mainly by opsonization
and phagocytosis, with participation of specific antibodies for polysaccharides present in the capsule.
While the passive CMV-specific immunity provided by CMVIG administration eliminates circulating CMV particles via opsonization
and phagocytosis, antiviral agents block intracellular viral replication by inhibiting DNA polymerase.
Phagocytosis is promoted by opsonization
of the microbe with IgG and/or C3b.
Thus, complement molecules can cover the pathogen in a process called opsonization
, which enhances phagocytosis of the pathogen; attract macrophages and neutrophils to the pathogen; help rupture the membranes of foreign pathogens, and induce clustering and binding of pathogens.
aureus including opsonization
and anaphylatoxin generation .
The effector functions of the IgG subclasses are usually opsonization
and complement activation, and activation of inflammatory cells through Fc-gamma receptors.
They are synthesized in the liver and the complexed-CRP activates complement to initiate opsonization
and phagocytosis of invading cells.
This association is thought to lead to opsonization
and subsequent phagocytosis of LDL-ox and, in consequence, formation of a characteristic component of atherosclerotic plaques: foam cells  (Figure 3).
Fc region of IgY mediates most biological effector functions, such as complement fixation, anaphylactic reactions and opsonization
, whereas the Fab region contains the antigen binding sites (DAVISON et al., 2008).
Antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) refers to the classical method of complement activation that is triggered by opsonization
of cells by antigen-specific antibodies (e.g., HLA antibodies) resulting in target cell-specific lysis.
For example, in women with high viraemia or those experiencing pregnancy related HBV exacerbations, increased antibody clearance via antibody "sequestration" through opsonization
, as seen in other antibody antiviral treatments [23, 24], could be occurring, thus further decreasing maternal (and fetal) neutralizing antibody levels.
It was discovered in 1896 as a heat-labile fraction of serum that led to opsonization
Seven days afterward blood was collected and serum was estranged aseptically (centrifuged at 400xg for 10 min) and reserved in barren polyethylene tubes at -20oC for further use in SRBC opsonization
. Anti-SRBC antibodies were monitored by haemagglutination assay using 2.5% SRBCs, with the highest titer of 1:64 being obtained.
In the presence of this factor, antibody could bind to the surface antigen of the pathogen, activating complement system, and increasing the phagocytosis of the pathogen through opsonization