Screening of DR in patients with diabetes can be performed by various modalities like direct ophthalmoscopy
, slit lamp bio-microscopy and digital photography.
Nonmydriatic screening for diabetic retinopathy by ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy
Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy
supported the decision to treat with laser therapy, as the neovascular areas were beginning to exert traction on the vitreous, suggesting a high risk of retinal detachment (Figure 2).
was used for diagnosing retinopathy.
Moreover, the accuracy of diagnoses was higher accurate when PHC physicians measured patient's visual acuity or used ophthalmoscopy
. However, differences in accuracy of diagnoses according to the measurement of visual acuity or performing ophthalmoscopy
were not statistically significant [Table 4].
Therefore, a DL model that can accurately diagnose conditions based on ultrawide-field fundus ophthalmoscopy
images without the need for human input can be used to screen and diagnose a very large number of patients at a very low cost.
The result of physical examination (P/E) was papilledema on ophthalmoscopy
and right-sided sixth cranial nerve palsy.
Ophthalmological screening consisted of a thorough examination of the central and peripheral retina by means of indirect ophthalmoscopy
through dilated pupils.
All patients underwent standard automated perimetry and analysis of ONH topography by using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy
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The eyes of cat were examined using indirect ophthalmoscopy
(Welch Allyn, USA).
However, ultrasound of the ONSD is easier to learn than other beside assessments of ICP including transcranial Doppler and ophthalmoscopy
In most patients, the diagnosis of CRAO may be made with ophthalmoscopy
alone, although ancillary testing is frequently used to confirm the diagnosis and to document the findings at presentation.
Diagnostic criteria used was based upon the presence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and PVR was diagnosed on slit lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy
. PVR was further categorized into different grades (A,B and C).
In Wyburn-Mason syndrome cutaneous findings of unilateral vascular abnormalities involving facial structure may resemble hemangioma but absence of intracranial and retinal arteriovenous malformation on MRI and ophthalmoscopy
ruled out Wyburn-Mason syndrome.5 Port-wine stain in case of Sturge-Weber syndrome may mimic facial hemangioma but absence of glaucoma on eye examination and MRI findings typical of PHACE syndrome in our patient excluded Sturge-Weber syndrome.6