Active resistance to alternating current [R.sub.[omega]1] = 1.5/1.4 [OMEGA]/km and [R.sub.[omega]1] = 0.85/0.78 [OMEGA]/km for corner steel 50x50x5 and 75x75x10, while the ohmic resistance
of the corners to direct current is 5 and 8.25 times less, respectively (Table 2).
The first part is irreversible heat due to the ohmic resistance
and polarization effect, and the second part is the reversible heat caused by enthalpy change during battery electrochemical reactions.
The ohmic resistance
describes sample resistivity, but it includes both the sample resistance and the uncompensated solution resistance.
The ohmic resistance
obtained by (7) equals to 0.676 [OMEGA], and the ohmic resistance
obtained by the simulation equals to 0.616 [OMEGA].
On the contrary, the ohmic resistance
[R.sub.s] (Tables 1 and 2), that is, the high frequency intercept of the impedance spectrum, is comparable with the one of the reference assembly, or even lower; in any case, it is in the order of 0.3 [OMEGA] x [cm.sup.2] and does not vary appreciably upon increasing CD.
Table 1: Ohmic resistance
and electrodes polarization estimated from the impedance data shown in Figure 7.
In early studies, we have reported that, biosensors with compositions below 14% of graphite loading in spite of having low double-layer capacitance values, it presented high ohmic resistance
and charge-transfer resistance values.
Furthermore, transepithelial electrical resistance measurements are limited to the ohmic resistance
and extraction of further electrical parameters such as the capacitance is not possible.
In this circuit, [R.sub.[OMEGA]] represents the ohmic resistance
at high frequencies and can be expressed as the sum of contributions of the electrical conductivity of the membrane, the catalytic layer, the gas diffusion layer and the bipolar plates, such that the main contribution is from the SPEEK membrane, impregnated or not with the IL.
The improvement of MPG is mainly due to the low ohmic resistance
at high temperature.
At the point where the maximum power has occurred ohmic resistance
and electrode potential have reached their maximum size and due to this, after this stage, power density is reduced.
and mass transfer losses could be decreased using membrane-lessconfiguration that in fact makes it cost effective because membrane is the primary cost of plant microbial fuel cell.
Because the battery internal ohmic resistance
changes greatly when the SOC is low and the changing has significant impact on SOC estimation, a new double sliding mode observer was designed to identify the internal ohmic resistance
, and the model parameter was updated in real time, which improves the accuracy of battery model.
The first element in the circuit is a solution resistance ([R.sub.s]), which corresponds to the ohmic resistance
of the system.
The circuitry is based on the linear polarization resistance method and it is integrated in a way that the data can be generated to calculate the Ohmic resistance
of concrete and Tafel slopes required for calculating [I.sub.corr] more accurately.