He compares the responses of what he calls the "Occidentalizing
" nationalist projects of the Zionists and the Kemalist Turks; the "cultural schizophrenia" of the Arab nationalists of the early and mid-20th century, who sought to adopt the temporal lens of modernity in relation to exterior materiality while retaining "essential" marks of cultural identity in the inner, spiritual domain; and the Islamist response, which he argues seeks an Islamization/Orientalization of both the exterior and interior.
As a result, European immigration was intensified, substituting slave labor, and creating colonies in wastelands providing workers for the emerging industries, as well as the whitening of the Brazilian population and Occidentalizing
its culture (see, e.g., Ianni).
As several critics have argued, most notably Gary Kelly, Balachandra Rajan, Susan Taylor and Claire Grogan, Hamilton's text is simultaneously producing an "Occidentalizing
" or defamiliarizing discourse, what Grogan calls an "oriental study," one that destabilizes the racist prejudices and gender stereotypes of her English readers.
Fortunately (or perhaps unfortunately for some), I lost the militant mood to offer criticism since any meaningful criticism must abide by some standard, which would then expose my lack of innocence as an Orientalizing agent for some and an Occidentalizing
one for others.
And it also summed up the oddness of being a foreigner walking through the Occidentalizing
landscapes of Japan.