Apical limit of root canal instrumentation and obturation
, part 2.
, the canals of the experimental groups were irrigated either with sterile saline (control), 2% CHX (Consepsis, Ultradent) or with 5% DMSO (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) for 60 s, and then dried with paper points.
Keywords: Dental pulp cavity, Root canal therapy, Endodontics, Single visit, multiple visits, Root canal obturation
Therefore, the present study examined several new endodontic technologies, including EndoActivator[R] and a new endodontic needle, in terms of performance in primary teeth root canal obturation
The surgical treatment should be performed after adequate canal obturation
, as part of the endodontic management of the affected tooth, or as an addition to endodontic management, respectively.
Gutta-percha (GP) is the standard root canal obturation
material that has many advantages such as biocompatibility, nonstaining, and radiopaque.
Recently, a variety of calcium silicate based sealers have been introduced, and interest in the single-cone obturation
technique using calcium silicate-based sealer has been increased due to improved biocompatibility [8,16,18] and dimensional stability  compared with conventional sealers.
Standardized endodontic procedures included the use of stainless steel manual files and rotary Ni-Ti instruments (ProTaper[R] Universal Series, Dentsply Maillefer), along with NaOCl and EDTA irrigations; the single-cone gutta-percha technique was chosen for final obturation
(Figure 3) of the root canal (finishing file instrument and gutta-percha point: size F1, ProTaper[R] Universal, Dentsply Maillefer).
Normal force: Resistance to stretching that increases bore diameter, as caused by bullet obturation
or gas pressure.
In root canal retreatment, removal of all filling materials from the root canals has a crucial importance in respect of three-dimensional cleaning, shaping and obturation
of the root canal system (1).
The adequacy of obturation
, length, and density was also evaluated as previously described .
of the root canal system constitutes one of the most important stages of endodontic treatment, which significantly affects its final result .
The development of maxillary sinusitis, including the occurrence of CG, could be attributed to hemorrhage and inflammatory processes in maxillary sinus mucosa after instrumentation or endodontic obturation