The first is related to voiced and voiceless obstruents
, more evident in the case of stops (with a clear separation in the map) and subtler in the case of fricatives (the voiced sounds are distributed at the ends and the voiceless sounds are in the center of the map).
initials in syllables with ydngping tone are aspirated /p', t', k', ts', ts', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/unless they are beiyin syllables derived from the ru tone.
The recurrence of forward tress in compounds with final obstruents
, for example: fire'wood, proofread, ward'robe, work'shop, bed'room, (RP: 'firewood 'proofread, 'wardrobe, 'workshop, 'bedroom)
and the comparative method.
The phonological effects of lenition, stated broadly, are that stops and m become continuants (fricatives or glides), coronal obstruents
(t, d, and s) become laryngeal or dorsal (a phenomenon known as "debuccalization"), and f is deleted.
To the chronologically last developments belong changes of obstruents
, simplification of the word-initial clusters wl-, wr-, kn-, gn-, insertion of [j] and [w], and a general loss of the liquid [r] in the non-prevocalic position.
There are five place contrasts for oral and nasal obstruents
, and four for approximants.
Velopharyngeal closure during speech production enables a speaker to generate appropriate air pressure and flow for the production of oral obstruents
and to produce voiced sounds without excessive nasal resonance.
One widespread sound change, however, that does not seem to follow any commonly found pattern is the backing of postnuclear, labial obstruents
(pepsi > peksi).
open, darken, organ) than after alveolar plosives and [+ continuant] obstruents
of vocalic and car [right arrow] [ka:] postvocalic /r/ Features involving vowels and diphthongs Monophthongization of /aI/ pie [right arrow] [pa:] in open syllables & ride [right arrow] [ra:d] before nasals or voiced obstruents
Tense/lax merger of front wheel [right arrow] [wIt] vowels before tail [right arrow] [t[?
Bethin however argues that there was first a Moraic constraint, which resulted in the elimination of syllable-final obstruents
and in the neutralization of lengths in diphthongs.
any change that affects obstruents
can never simultaneously involve more than one of its three major articulatory properties, namely voicing, manner of articulation and place or articulation".
It should be borne in mind that, in the cases of column C of Table 4, C2 represents a specific subset of examples which, in spite of respecting the constraint of vocalic nuclei (see (4a)), do not agree with other important phonotactic constraints of EP, since they show codas potentially filled by obstruents
or by sonorants unallowed in coda position.
The Peking School denies them, because no Sinitic lect contains such consonant clusters (there are at most prenasalised obstruents
that can be considered as homogeneous consonant clusters), and the Xiesheng series might be made up of personal variations across different lects, due to which they cannot be considered as allomorphs in the same lect.