In robustness tests, we also rule out audit tenure, auditor expertise, auditor change, and audit fees as factors that could affect our main result--the link between managerial vega and disclosure obfuscation.
We next explore how managers benefit from disclosure obfuscation. One direct benefit could be that obfuscation increases return volatility, which increases options value (Black and Scholes, 1973).
* Exclude/Include entities from obfuscation
Rules or inline Obfuscation
Therefore, the AL-LPL problem can be defined as follows: given (1) u's setting about lower bound of location utility Q after obfuscation (Q is a real number between 0 and 1, and larger Q represents better location utility); (2) us current location r; (3) adversary's background knowledge KnL(u) about u; and (4) adversary's possible attacks set ASet, how to get optimal obfuscation distribution P under maximum loss of location utility [Q.sub.1] ([Q.sub.1] = 1- Q)?
In this section, our proposed solution for AL-LPL is given through (1) analyzing potential inference attacks, (2) establishing specific obfuscation model for corresponding attacks, and (3) using the improved game-based framework to defend continuous dynamic attacks.
method is changing the names of the registers so that these will change from one generation to the next one but can be recognized by renaming the registers [6,7].
Part I of this small-format book introduces obfuscation
's key characteristics and variations through examples.
Implementing tokenization in organizations requires resource investments and even if it solves some problems it comes with certain limitations: if used extensively it generates a rapid database growth, large databases are difficult to maintain and lower systems performance, rely on other obfuscation
techniques like encryption to secure the data vault and the communication lines between the data vault and its clients.
To mitigate this problem, programmers often employ obfuscation
techniques to transform and protect a .NET assembly (without affecting its functionality) so that it becomes difficult or impossible for a software cracker to reverse engineer it.
In their book Obfuscation
: A User's Guide for Privacy and Protest, Finn Brunton and Helen Nissenbaum put forward a manifesto for the digitally weak and powerless, whether ordinary consumers or traditionally marginalized groups who lack the knowledge or means to effectively protect their digital lives from monitoring.
Another study  used a Hilbert curve to create an obfuscation
area to mask the location of users.
Refusing to answer the question is one of the things that has caused the public's deep distrust of politicians, and sadly our PM is a past master at the art of evasion and obfuscation
Emphasis on "continuation." American military assistance to Lebanon has become not just routine but, thanks to a series of obfuscations
established during the Obama administration, institutional.
TIME is running out for Donald Trump's denials, obfuscations
and lies, with the terrible truth emerging about how Russia hijacked American democracy to put its chosen oaf in the White House.
"We are face to face with an enemy who refuses to acknowledge and recognize the truth and uses every means - lies and obfuscations
-to undermine our just struggle," they said.