TEAA: total essential amino acids; NEAA: nonessential amino acids
; TSAA: total sulphur amino acids; TArAA: total aromatic amino acids.
Amino acids WSPP WSPC Essential amino acids Histidine 22 23 Isoleucine 48 44 Leucine 86 81 Lysine 76 74 Methionine ND ND Phenylalanine 44 43 Threonine 49 49 Tryptophan ND ND Valine 59 60 Nonessential amino acids
Alanine 85 88 Arginine 83 79 Aspartic/asparagine 98 98 Cysteine ND ND Glutamic/glutamine 156 151 Glycine 62 63 Proline 55 57 Serine 52 50 Tyrosine 27 39 Hydrophobic amino acids * 439 436 Hydrophillic amino acids ** 382 387 ND is not detectable.
There's also the Comprehensive Wellness Profile that could provide important information on the individual's level of antioxidants (Vitamin A, carotene, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, alpha lipoic acid and CoQ10); B Complex (Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B7, B9 and B12); minerals (manganese, magnesium, zinc, molybdenum, potassium, selenium and copper); toxic elements (cadmium, antimony, arsenic, mercury, tin, lead); fatty acids (Omega 3, 6, 9, Omega 6:3 ratio, saturated and monounsaturated); amino acids (20 essential and nonessential amino acids
); oxidative stress markers (glutathione, lipid peroxides); malabsorption and dysbiosis markers; IGg allergy profile (delayed or nonatopic food reactions).
The data given in Table 4 show that content of free essential amino acids in test batches of products has increased by 215% at the average in comparison with the control, and that of nonessential amino acids
Although the use of non-specific nitrogen sources to meet the synthesis of nonessential amino acids
cannot be fully efficient for maximum protein utilization by the bird, because some non-essential amino acids are considered essential in some periods of the life cycle of the bird.
In contrast, the nonessential amino acids
alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, and proline are all enriched relative to bulk values in both studies.
Nonessential amino acids
(alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, tyrosine, and asparagine) are those which can be produced from other amino acids and substances in the metabolism.
Supernatant was discarded and pellet was suspended in DMED/F12 supplemented by nonessential amino acids
, 15 mM 4-[2-hydroxyethyl]-1 pi-perazineethanesulfonic acid [HEPES], 0.12% sodium bicarbonate, 4 mM L-glutamine (all from Invitrogen), 100 IU/ml penicillin, 100 [micro]g/ ml streptomycin (Sigma-Aldrich), 40 [micro]/ml fangizone and 10% FBS.
For the asparagine assay only, F1B cells were supplemented at standard concentration of 10 ml/L media with nonessential amino acids
(Gibco MEM Nonessential Amino Acids
Solution, 100x, Invitrogen Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY, USA).
The transporter also takes eight of the nonessential amino acids
along for the ride.
For the nonessential amino acids
, glutamic acid was present in the largest amount, at 5.46 g per 100 g.
(4) Additionally, the ingestion of essential amino acids was shown to be superior in stimulating protein synthesis, as compared to a combination of nonessential amino acids
. (5), (6)
It advises that soy protein is equal to animal proteins (making it suitable as a sole source of protein), and that whole grains, legumes, vegetables, seeds, and nuts contain both essential and nonessential amino acids
. The AHA states: "You don't need to eat foods from animals to have enough protein in your diet.
Livestock require essential amino acids in their diets and sufficient nonspecific sources of nitrogen with which to make the nonessential amino acids
. Whether these come from the protein in soybean meal, alfalfa hay, or meat meal makes no difference.
Cells were grown in phenol red-free EMEM containing 2 mM glutamine, 1% nonessential amino acids
, 100 U/mL antibiotics (mix of penicillin, streptomycin, and fungizone), 1 mM sodium pyruvate, and 10% fetal calf serum (Biowhittaker, Gagny, France).