(1997), who investigated the period from 1360 to 1490, found only 17.5% N+V+er nominals (cf.
But since Gothic nominals like bok+areis 'librarian' had in fact only monolexemic bases, we lean toward the assumption that the career of -ari started with monolexemic bases.
As stated above, both predecessors of the NHG -er-suffix, Latin -arius and Germanic *-warja, formed nominals denoting human beings (cf.
The Goethe corpus of Stricker (2000) gives five examples of EVENT nominals formed with the suffix -er out of a total of 1013 -er-nominals (i.e.
Because names are usually considered a subclass of nouns, deonomastic nominals are generally incorporated in the class of denominal ones (e.g.
This arithmetic exercise is contrary to the sense of license numbers as nominals that are not calculated, but that sense can be renewed by noting the current enthusiasm for vanity plates, where, for an extra fee, motorists can combine characters for their tag number by using their names or cute slogans.
Thus, we should not be surprised if children entering school confuse nominals and cardinals.
Some early-childhood mathematics educators, such as Gibb and Castaneda (1975), have noted that confusion between the number names - the nominals as used in counting - and the cardinal quantity in a set can be an intermediate step in developing number sense.
After the nominals have been used to lead to counting skills, older children continue to use nominal numbers purely as names.
With nominals, we may indeed complain that bureaucracy thinks of us only as a number.
Throughout this paper, we will only be concerned with event-denoting -ung nominals. Similarly, we will not discuss lexicalized forms but will only consider productive derivation.
Most frequently, -ung nominals are derived from the prefix verbs that denote events, that is, changes in the state of affairs, rather than from other verbs that denote states or processes.(1) Among these (intransitive or transitive) event-denoting prefix verbs, some allow the derivation of -ung nominals, whereas others don't.
In section 2, I will examine various problems of the derivation of -ung nominals with respect to the syntactic and semantic properties of their base verbs.
In what follows, we will, by way of examples, examine some intransitive and transitive prefix verbs and try to find out what kind of morphosyntactic and semantic properties they should have for the derivation of -ung nominals. First, we will look at the intransitive verbs erblinden and erbluhen and their corresponding -ung nominals Erblindung and *Erbluhung in the following contexts: (1) a.
Next, we will consider the possibility of deriving -ung nominals from transitive prefix verbs.