Radiograph and ultra sound confirmed distended bladder and bilateral nephrolith
. Catheterization was performed and no obstruction was found, around 600 ml of urine was drained.
In several studies conducted in the 1990s, human patients who formed calcium oxalate nephroliths
drank a French mineral water containing high levels of calcium (202 parts per million) and magnesium (36 ppm).
(84,93) Patients present with abdominal masses, flank pain, and hematuria, but also can develop outflow obstruction with consequent pyelonephritis, or they may be misdiagnosed with renal cysts or nephroliths
Treatment of trauma, neoplasia, and nephroliths
account for many of the performed renal surgeries.
Although struvites can develop in the kidneys, where they are called nephroliths
, the vast majority are bladder stones.