Due to the neurological threat and the lung nodules, chemotherapy according to the SIOP-RTSG 2001 for stage IV nephroblastoma
was administered, including three drugs (vincristine, actinomycine D, and doxorubicine).
Wilms' tumor (nephroblastoma
), an embryonal type of renal cancer accounts for nearly 6% of all pediatric cancers and more than 95% of all kidney tumors in children.1 The tumor usually arises in a single kidney while synchronous bilateral or multifocal tumors can occur in approximately 10% of patients and tend to present at an earlier age.1-4 Wilms' tumor can also be diagnosed in adolescents or adults, but this is extremely rare, representing less than 1% of all renal tumors.5 The usual treatment approach in most patients is a combination of surgery and chemotherapy.
The differential diagnosis of a large abdominal masses in neonates includes: neuroblastoma, nephroblastoma
, feto-in-fetus, teratoma, and meconium cyst.
Extensively cystic renal neoplasms: cystic nephroma, cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma
, multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma, and cystic hamartoma of renal pelvis.
or Wilms' tumour is one of the most common childhood cancers in Africa.
When Leilani was just five years old she was diagnosed with nephroblastoma
, kidney cancer.
Two-year-old Daniel was diagnosed with a type of kidney cancer (Nephroblastoma
tosis), when he was just two weeks old and had to undergo 12-months of grueling chemotherapy.
Total Mild 54 69% Moderate 19 25% Severe 4 5% Very severe 1 1% Figure 1: Frequency of various types of cancer in children (N=100) * Other(BLL), rhab, glio, nephro etc) 16% (n=16) Hodgkin's Lymphoma 7% (n=7) AML 10% (n=10) ALL+ALL relapse 67% (n=67) * Others (BLL, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Glioblastoma, Nephroblastoma
) Note: Table made from pie chart.
Saghir Khan further said that one important example of delayed presentation and sub-optimal treatment before referral to cancer centres in Pakistan is wilms tumor (WT), also called as nephroblastoma
. WT accounts for 6% of all childhood cancers.
The matricellular protein family CCN, which stands for CYR61/CTGF/NOV, are a family of six homolog members containing CYR61/CCN1 (cysteine-rich 61), CTGF/CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor), NOV/CCN3 (nephroblastoma
overexpressed), and WISP-1/CCN4, WISP-2/CCN5, and WISP-3/CCN6 (Wnt-inducible-secreted proteins).
Multilocular cyst of the kidney (cystic nephroma) and cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma
. Cancer 1989;64: 466-79.
Stella was two when she was diagnosed with a form of childhood cancer called nephroblastoma