In such a case, the prohibited behavior or its cognitive representation functions as a conditioned negative stimulus
The thesis here is that while violence at times serves as a substitute for something else or as a reaction to negative stimulus
, it is also sometimes deliberately chosen as a pastime.
When negative stimulus
combinations were presented (with no-go responses expected), there were no reinforcer deliveries.
Shaw and his colleagues tested flies' ability to learn by pairing a negative stimulus
(the chemical quinine, which flies prefer to avoid) with a positive stimulus (a light, which flies instinctively seek).
Conditional discrimination and equivalence relations: control by negative stimulus
Upon this background, the pups responded to a natural maternal odour or an artificial odour that was conditioned as a new maternal odour through pairings with either a positive stimulus (the stroking) or a negative stimulus
Positive and negative stimulus
relations in severely retarded individuals' conditional discrimination.
Control of adolescents' arbitrary matching-to-sample by positive and negative stimulus
The present data match a recent report by Goulart, Mendonca, Barros, Galvao, and McIlvane (2005) that indicated that capuchin monkeys tested in another reversal learning task also seemed to be responding on the basis of negative stimulus
control, or what those authors called reject-control relations.
The typical generalization gradient can be altered, however, if participants are trained both to respond to a positive stimulus (the S+) and to refrain from responding to a negative stimulus
less accuracy or longer response time) on the negative stimulus
irrespective of the condition.
187ff; my italics), and when they discuss findings that agree with selection they state that "the subject might always have chosen correctly without ever having identified the negative stimulus
on any baseline or test trial" (p.
According to the theory of Nakagawa (1978, 1986, 1992a, 1993b, 1998, 1999a, 1999c, 1999d), during the original training animals learn a connection between a positive stimulus and an approach response as well as a connection between a negative stimulus
and an avoidance response for each discrimination task in concurrent discriminations.
According to Nakagawa's theory (1986, 1992a, 1998), during the original training animals learn a connection between a positive stimulus and an approach response as well as a connection between a negative stimulus
and an avoidance response for each discrimination task.
In a concurrent discrimination, rats are given training in one discrimination task [a positive stimulus (A+)-a negative stimulus
(C-)] on some trials and in the other discrimination [a positive stimulus (B+)-a negative stimulus
(D-)] on the other trials in a random order in the same apparatus and within each session.