El-Gindy, "Analysis of diphenhydramine hydrochloride and naphazoline
hydrochloride in presence of methylene blue in Eye drops by second derivative spectrophotometry," Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol.
Liver and kidney dysfunction following naphazoline
overdose is rare [10, 11], and the etiology of naphazoline-induced organ disorders is unclear.
Drug options Pseudoephedrine (Su-dafed 12/24), phenylephrine (Sudafed PE, 4-Way Fast-Acting nasal spray), naphazoline
(Privine nasal spray), oxy-metazoline (Afrin nasal spray).
The results indicated that the potency (pEC50 values) rank order was Dexmedetomidine > Guanabenz > p-aminoclonidine > UK-14304 > Oxymetazoline > Clonidine > Xylometazoline > Guanfacine > Naphazoline
> (-)EPI > [alpha]-methyl-NE > 6-FNE > (-)NE > Deoxy EPI > Dopamine (deoxyNE) > Xylazine > (+)-NE > (-)-Phenylephrine > Isoproterenol.
The sympathomimetic amines include ephedrine and phenylephrine, and the imidazolines include naphazoline
, oxymetazoline, tetrahydrozoline, and xylometazoline.
The ingredients vary from brand to brand, but the active ones (such as ephedrine and naphazoline
) work by shrinking blood vessels in the lining of the eye, making the whites appear whiter.
A safer nasal decongestant is phenylephrine hydrochloride, tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride, naphazoline
hydrochloride, oxymetazoline hydrochloride, and xlometazoline hydrochloride.
HCI and pheniramine Altaire Pharmaceuticals
As noted earlier, any 'red eye' with an inflammatory aetiology (including episcleritis) will likely respond in the short term to being kept adequately lubricated (to offset the effects of persistent lacrimation) and some comfort be realized with the judicious use of a topical ocular decongestant (eg, naphazoline
Drugs such as naphazoline
(eg, Murine eye drops, or Eye Dew Sparkling eye drops) and xylometazoline (eg, Otrivine-Antisitine eye drops) were introduced in the 1950s to replace the use of adrenaline (epinephrine) 1:1000 eye drops as a vasoconstrictor (decongestant)?
With the active antihistamine ingredient pheniramine maleate (0.3%) and decongestant ingredient naphazoline
hydrochloride (0.025%), OcuHist promises temporary relief of itching and redness of the eye due to pollen, ragweed, grass, animal hair and dander.
Adrenergic agents such as ephedrine and naphazoline
, which are often used in over the counter cold and flu remedies, can similarly cause angle closure by inducing pupillary block.